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Saturday, February 27, 2010

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The True Story of the Taj Mahal




The story of the Taj Mahal that most of us have known about may not be the real truth. Herein Mr.
P. N. Oak presents an interesting set of proofs that show a completely different story. Contrary to
what visitors are made to believe the Tajmahal is not a Islamic mausoleum but an ancient Shiva
Temple known as Tejo Mahalaya which the 5th generation Moghul emperor Shahjahan
commandeered from the then Maharaja of Jaipur. The Taj Mahal, should therefore, be
viewed as a temple palace and not as a tomb. That makes a vast difference. You miss
the details of its size, grandeur, majesty and beauty when you take it to be a mere
tomb. When told that you are visiting a temple palace you wont fail to notice its
annexes, ruined defensive walls, hillocks, moats, cascades, fountains, majestic
garden, hundreds of rooms archaded verendahs, terraces, multi stored towers, secret
sealed chambers, guest rooms, stables, the trident (Trishul) pinnacle on the dome and
the sacred, esoteric Hindu letter "OM" carved on the exterior of the wall of the sanctum sanctorum
now occupied by the cenotaphs. For detailed proof of this breath taking discovery, you may read
the well known historian Shri. P. N. Oak's celebrated book titled " Tajmahal : The True Story". But
let us place before you, for the time being an exhaustive summary of the massive evidence ranging
over hundred points:
NAME
1.The term Tajmahal itself never occurs in any mogul court paper or chronicle even in Aurangzeb's
time. The attempt to explain it away as Taj-i-mahal is therefore, ridiculous.
2.The ending "Mahal"is never muslim because in none of the muslim countries around the world
from Afghanistan to Algeria is there a building known as "Mahal".
3.The unusual explanation of the term Tajmahal derives from Mumtaz Mahal, who is buried in it, is
illogical in at least two respects viz., firstly her name was never Mumtaj Mahal but
Mumtaz-ul-Zamani and secondly one cannot omit the first three letters "Mum" from a woman's
name to derive the remainder as the name of the building.
4.Since the lady's name was Mumtaz (ending with 'Z') the name of the building derived from her
should have been Taz Mahal, if at all, and not Taj (spelled with a 'J').
5.Several European visitors of Shahjahan's time allude to the building as Taj-e-Mahal is almost the
correct tradition, age old Sanskrit name Tej-o-Mahalaya, signifying a Shiva temple. Contrarily
Shahjahan and Aurangzeb scrupulously avoid using the Sanskrit term and call it just a holy grave.
6.The tomb should be understood to signify NOT A BUILDING but only the grave or centotaph
inside it. This would help people to realize that all dead muslim courtiers and royalty including
Humayun, Akbar, Mumtaz, Etmad-ud-Daula and Safdarjang have been buried in capture Hindu
mansions and temples.
7.Moreover, if the Taj is believed to be a burial place, how can the term Mahal, i.e., mansion apply
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to it?
8.Since the term Taj Mahal does not occur in mogul courts it is absurd to search for any mogul
explanation for it. Both its components namely, 'Taj' and' Mahal' are of Sanskrit origin.
TEMPLE TRADITION
9.The term Taj Mahal is a corrupt form of the sanskrit term TejoMahalay signifying a Shiva Temple.
Agreshwar Mahadev i.e., The Lord of Agra was consecrated in it.
10.The tradition of removing the shoes before climbing the marble platform originates from pre
Shahjahan times when the Taj was a Shiva Temple. Had the Taj originated as a tomb, shoes need
not have to be removed because shoes are a necessity in a cemetery.
11.Visitors may notice that the base slab of the centotaph is the marble basement in plain white
while its superstructure and the other three centotaphs on the two floors are covered with inlaid
creeper designs. This indicates that the marble pedestal of the Shiva idol is still in place and
Mumtaz's centotaphs are fake.
12.The pitchers carved inside the upper border of the marble lattice plus those mounted on it
number 108-a number sacred in Hindu Temple tradition.
13.There are persons who are connected with the repair and the maintainance of the Taj who have
seen the ancient sacred Shiva Linga and other idols sealed in the thick walls and in chambers in
the secret, sealed red stone stories below the marble basement. The Archaeological Survey of
India is keeping discretely, politely and diplomatically silent about it to the point of dereliction of its
own duty to probe into hidden historical evidence.
14.In India there are 12 Jyotirlingas i.e., the outstanding Shiva Temples. The Tejomahalaya alias
The Tajmahal appears to be one of them known as Nagnatheshwar since its parapet is girdled with
Naga, i.e., Cobra figures. Ever since Shahjahan's capture of it the sacred temple has lost its
Hindudom.
15.The famous Hindu treatise on architecture titled Vishwakarma Vastushastra mentions the
'Tej-Linga' amongst the Shivalingas i.e., the stone emblems of Lord Shiva, the Hindu deity. Such a
Tej Linga was consecrated in the Taj Mahal, hence the term Taj Mahal alias Tejo Mahalaya.
16.Agra city, in which the Taj Mahal is located, is an ancient centre of Shiva worship. Its orthodox
residents have through ages continued the tradition of worshipping at five Shiva shrines before
taking the last meal every night especially during the month of Shravan. During the last few
centuries the residents of Agra had to be content with worshipping at only four prominent Shiva
temples viz., Balkeshwar, Prithvinath, Manakameshwar and Rajarajeshwar. They had lost track of
the fifth Shiva deity which their forefathers worshipped. Apparently the fifth was Agreshwar
Mahadev Nagnatheshwar i.e., The Lord Great God of Agra, The Deity of the King of Cobras,
consecrated in the Tejomahalay alias Tajmahal.
17.The people who dominate the Agra region are Jats. Their name of Shiva is Tejaji. The Jat
special issue of The Illustrated Weekly of India (June 28,1971) mentions that the Jats have the
Teja Mandirs i.e., Teja Temples. This is because Teja-Linga is among the several names of the
Shiva Lingas. From this it is apparent that the Taj-Mahal is Tejo-Mahalaya, The Great Abode of
Tej.
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DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE
18. Shahjahan's own court chronicle, the Badshahnama, admits (page 403, vol 1) that a grand
mansion of unique splendor, capped with a dome (Imaarat-a-Alishan wa Gumbaze) was taken
from the Jaipur Maharaja Jaisigh for Mumtaz's burial, and the building was known as Raja
Mansingh's palace.
19. The plaque put the archealogy department outside the Tajmahal describes the edifice as a
mausoleum built by Shahjahan for his wife Mumtaz Mahal , over 22 years from 1631 to 1653. That
plaque is a specimen of historical bungling. Firstly, the plaque sites no authority for its claim.
Secondly the lady's name was Mumtaz-ulZamani and not Mumtazmahal. Thirdly, the period of 22
years is taken from some mumbo jumbo noting by an unreliable French visitor Tavernier, to the
exclusion of all muslim versions, which is an absurdity.
20. Prince Aurangzeb's letter to his father,emperor Shahjahan,is recorded in atleast three
chronicles titled `Aadaab-e-Alamgiri', `Yadgarnama', and the `Muruqqa-i-Akbarabadi' (edited by
Said Ahmed, Agra, 1931, page 43, footnote 2). In that letter Aurangzeb records in 1652 A.D itself
that the several buildings in the fancied burial place of Mumtaz were seven storeyed and were so
old that they were all leaking, while the dome had developed a crack on the northern
side.Aurangzeb, therefore, ordered immediate repairs to the buildings at his own expense while
recommending to the emperor that more elaborate repairs be carried out later. This is the proof
that during Shahjahan's reign itself that the Taj complex was so old as to need immediate repairs.
21. The ex-Maharaja of Jaipur retains in his secret personal `KapadDwara' collection two orders
from Shahjahan dated Dec 18, 1633 (bearing modern nos. R.176 and 177) requestioning the Taj
building complex. That was so blatant a usurpation that the then ruler of Jaipur was ashamed to
make the document public.
22. The Rajasthan State archives at Bikaner preserve three other firmans addressed by Shahjahan
to the Jaipur's ruler Jaising ordering the latter to supply marble (for Mumtaz's grave and koranic
grafts) from his Makranna quarris, and stone cutters. Jaisingh was apparently so enraged at the
blatant seizure of the Tajmahal that he refused to oblige Shahjahan by providing marble for grafting
koranic engravings and fake centotaphs for further desecration of the Tajmahal. Jaising looked at
Shahjahan's demand for marble and stone cutters, as an insult added to injury. Therefore, he
refused to send any marble and instead detained the stone cutters in his protective custody.
23. The three firmans demanding marble were sent to Jaisingh within about two years of Mumtaz's
death. Had Shahjahan really built the Tajmahal over a period of 22 years, the marble would have
needed only after 15 or 20 years not immediately after Mumtaz's death.
24. Moreover, the three mention neither the Tajmahal, nor Mumtaz, nor the burial. The cost and
the quantity of the stone also are not mentioned. This proves that an insignificant quantity of
marble was needed just for some supercial tinkering and tampering with the Tajmahal. Even
otherwise Shahjahan could never hope to build a fabulous Tajmahal by abject dependence for
marble on a non cooperative Jaisingh.
EUROPEAN VISITOR'S ACCOUNTS
25. Tavernier, a French jeweller has recorded in his travel memoirs that Shahjahan purposely
buried Mumtaz near the Taz-i-Makan (i.e.,`The Taj building') where foriegners used to come as
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they do even today so that the world may admire. He also adds that the cost of the scaffolding was
more than that of the entire work. The work that Shahjahan commissioned in the Tejomahalaya
Shiva temple was plundering at the costly fixtures inside it, uprooting the Shiva idols, planting the
centotaphs in their place on two stories, inscribing the koran along the arches and walling up six of
the seven stories of the Taj. It was this plunder, desecrating and plunderring of the rooms which
took 22 years.
26. Peter Mundy, an English visitor to Agra recorded in 1632 (within only a year of Mumtaz's death)
that `the places of note in and around Agra, included Taj-e-Mahal's tomb, gardens and
bazaars'.He, therefore, confirms that that the Tajmahal had been a noteworthy building even
before Shahjahan.
27. De Laet, a Dutch official has listed Mansingh's palace about a mile from Agra fort, as an
outstanding building of pre shahjahan's time. Shahjahan's court chronicle, the Badshahnama
records, Mumtaz's burial in the same Mansingh's palace.
28. Bernier, a contemporary French visitor has noted that non muslim's were barred entry into the
basement (at the time when Shahjahan requisitioned Mansingh's palace) which contained a
dazzling light. Obviously, he reffered to the silver doors, gold railing, the gem studded lattice and
strings of pearl hanging over Shiva's idol. Shahjahan comandeered the building to grab all the
wealth, making Mumtaz's death a convineant pretext.
29. Johan Albert Mandelslo, who describes life in agra in 1638 (only 7 years after mumtaz's death)
in detail (in his `Voyages and Travels to West-Indies', published by John Starkey and John Basset,
London), makes no mention of the Tajmahal being under constuction though it is commonly
erringly asserted or assumed that the Taj was being built from 1631 to 1653.
SANSKIRT INSCRIPTION
30. A Sanskrit inscription too supports the conclusion that the Taj originated as a Shiva temple.
Wrongly termed as the Bateshwar inscription (currently preserved on the top floor of the Lucknow
museum), it refers to the raising of a "crystal white Shiva temple so alluring that Lord Shiva once
enshrined in it decided never to return to Mount Kailash his usual abode". That inscription dated
1155 A.D. was removed from the Tajmahal garden at Shahjahan's orders. Historicians and
Archeaologists have blundered in terming the insription the `Bateshwar inscription' when the record
doesn't say that it was found by Bateshwar. It ought, in fact, to be called `The Tejomahalaya
inscription' because it was originally installed in the Taj garden before it was uprooted and cast
away at Shahjahan's command.
A clue to the tampering by Shahjahan is found on pages 216-217, vol. 4, of Archealogiical Survey
of India Reports (published 1874) stating that a "great square black balistic pillar which, with the
base and capital of another pillar....now in the grounds of Agra,...it is well known, once stood in the
garden of Tajmahal".
MISSING ELEPHANTS
31. Far from the building of the Taj, Shahjahan disfigured it with black koranic lettering and heavily
robbed it of its Sanskrit inscription, several idols and two huge stone elephants extending their
trunks in a welcome arch over the gateway where visitors these days buy entry tickets. An
Englishman, Thomas Twinning, records (pg.191 of his book "Travels in India A Hundred Years
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ago") that in November 1794 "I arrived at the high walls which enclose the Taj-e-Mahal and its
circumjacent buildings. I here got out of the palanquine and.....mounted a short flight of steps
leading to a beautiful portal which formed the centre of this side of the `COURT OF ELEPHANTS"
as the great area was called."
KORANIC PATCHES
32. The Taj Mahal is scrawled over with 14 chapters of the Koran but nowhere is there even the
slightest or the remotest allusion in that Islamic overwriting to Shahjahan's authorship of the Taj.
Had Shahjahan been the builder he would have said so in so many words before beginning to
quote Koran.
33. That Shahjahan, far from building the marble Taj, only disfigured it with black lettering is
mentioned by the inscriber Amanat Khan Shirazi himself in an inscription on the building. A close
scrutiny of the Koranic lettering reveals that they are grafts patched up with bits of variegated stone
on an ancient Shiva temple.
CARBON 14 TEST
34. A wooden piece from the riverside doorway of the Taj subjected to the carbon 14 test by an
American Laboratory, has revealed that the door to be 300 years older than Shahjahan,since the
doors of the Taj, broken open by Muslim invaders repeatedly from the 11th century onwards, had
to b replaced from time to time. The Taj edifice is much more older. It belongs to 1155 A.D, i.e.,
almost 500 years anterior to Shahjahan.
ARCHITECHTURAL EVIDENCE
35. Well known Western authorities on architechture like E.B.Havell, Mrs.Kenoyer and Sir
W.W.Hunterhave gone on record to say that the TajMahal is built in the Hindu temple style. Havell
points out the ground plan of the ancient Hindu Chandi Seva Temple in Java is identical with that
of the Taj.
36. A central dome with cupolas at its four corners is a universal feature of Hindu temples.
37. The four marble pillars at the plinth corners are of the Hindu style. They are used as lamp
towers during night and watch towers during the day. Such towers serve to demarcate the holy
precincts. Hindu wedding altars and the altar set up for God Satyanarayan worship have pillars
raised at the four corners.
38. The octagonal shape of the Tajmahal has a special Hindu significance because Hindus alone
have special names for the eight directions, and celestial guards assigned to them. The pinnacle
points to the heaven while the foundation signifies to the nether world. Hindu forts, cities, palaces
and temples genrally have an octagonal layout or some octagonal features so that together with
the pinnacle and the foundation they cover all the ten directions in which the king or God holds
sway, according to Hindu belief.
39. The Tajmahal has a trident pinncle over the dome. A full scale of the trident pinnacle is inlaid in
the red stone courtyard to the east of the Taj. The central shaft of the trident depicts a "Kalash"
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(sacred pot) holding two bent mango leaves and a coconut. This is a sacred Hindu motif. Identical
pinnacles have been seen over Hindu and Buddhist temples in the Himalayan region. Tridents are
also depicted against a red lotus background at the apex of the stately marble arched entrances on
all four sides of the Taj. People fondly but mistakenly believed all these centuries that the Taj
pinnacle depicts a Islamic cresent and star was a lighting conductor installed by the British rulers in
India. Contrarily, the pinnacle is a marvel of Hindu metallurgy since the pinnacle made of non
rusting alloy, is also perhaps a lightning deflector. That the pinnacle of the replica is drawn in the
eastern courtyard is significant because the east is of special importance to the Hindus, as the
direction in which the sun rises. The pinnacle on the dome has the word `Allah' on it after capture.
The pinnacle figure on the ground does not have the word Allah.
INCONSISTENCIES
40. The two buildings which face the marble Taj from the east and west are identical in design, size
and shape and yet the eastern building is explained away by Islamic tradition, as a community hall
while the western building is claimed to be a mosque. How could buildings meant for radically
different purposes be identical? This proves that the western building was put to use as a mosque
after seizure of the Taj property by Shahjahan. Curiously enough the building being explained
away as a mosque has no minaret. They form a pair af reception pavilions of the Tejomahalaya
temple palace.
41. A few yards away from the same flank is the Nakkar Khana alias DrumHouse which is a
intolerable incongruity for Islam. The proximity of the Drum House indicates that the western annex
was not originally a mosque. Contrarily a drum house is a neccesity in a Hindu temple or palace
because Hindu chores,in the morning and evening, begin to the sweet strains of music.
42. The embossed patterns on the marble exterior of the centotaph chamber wall are foilage of the
conch shell design and the Hindu letter "OM". The octagonally laid marble lattices inside the
centotaph chamber depict pink lotuses on their top railing. The Lotus, the conch and the OM are
the sacred motifs associated with the Hindu deities and temples.
43. The spot occupied by Mumtaz's centotaph was formerly occupied by the Hindu Teja Linga a
lithic representation of Lord Shiva. Around it are five perambulatory passages. Perambulation
could be done around the marble lattice or through the spacious marble chambers surrounding the
centotaph chamber, and in the open over the marble platform. It is also customary for the Hindus
to have apertures along the perambulatory passage, overlooking the deity. Such apertures exist in
the perambulatories in the Tajmahal.
44. The sanctom sanctorum in the Taj has silver doors and gold railings as Hindu temples have. It
also had nets of pearl and gems stuffed in the marble lattices. It was the lure of this wealth which
made Shahjahan commandeer the Taj from a helpless vassal Jaisingh, the then ruler of Jaipur.
45. Peter Mundy, a Englishman records (in 1632, within a year of Mumtaz's death) having seen a
gem studded gold railing around her tomb. Had the Taj been under construction for 22 years, a
costly gold railing would not have been noticed by Peter mundy within a year of Mumtaz's death.
Such costl fixtures are installed in a building only after it is ready for use. This indicates that
Mumtaz's centotaph was grafted in place of the Shivalinga in the centre of the gold railings.
Subsequently the gold railings, silver doors, nets of pearls, gem fillings etc. were all carried away to
Shahjahan's treasury. The seizure of the Taj thus constituted an act of highhanded Moghul robery
causing a big row between Shahjahan and Jaisingh.
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46. In the marble flooring around Mumtaz's centotaph may be seen tiny mosaic patches. Those
patches indicate the spots where the support for the gold railings were embedded in the floor. They
indicate a rectangular fencing.
47. Above Mumtaz's centotaph hangs a chain by which now hangs a lamp. Before capture by
Shahjahan the chain used to hold a water pitcher from which water used to drip on the Shivalinga.
48. It is this earlier Hindu tradition in the Tajmahal which gave the Islamic myth of Shahjahan's love
tear dropping on Mumtaz's tomb on the full moon day of the winter eve.
TREASURY WELL
49. Between the so-called mosque and the drum house is a multistoried octagonal well with a flight
of stairs reaching down to the water level. This is a traditional treasury well in Hindu temple
palaces. Treasure chests used to be kept in the lower apartments while treasury personnel had
their offices in the upper chambers. The circular stairs made it difficult for intruders to reach down
to the treasury or to escape with it undetected or unpursued. In case the premises had to be
surrendered to a besieging enemy the treasure could be pushed into the well to remain hidden
from the conquerer and remain safe for salvaging if the place was reconquered. Such an elaborate
multistoried well is superflous for a mere mausoleum. Such a grand, gigantic well is unneccesary
for a tomb.
BURIAL DATE UNKNOWN
50. Had Shahjahan really built the Taj Mahal as a wonder mausoleum, history would have
recorded a specific date on which she was ceremoniously buried in the Taj Mahal. No such date is
ever mentioned. This important missing detail decisively exposes the falsity of the Tajmahal
legend.
51. Even the year of Mumtaz's death is unknown. It is variously speculated to be 1629, 1630, 1631
or 1632. Had she deserved a fabulous burial, as is claimed, the date of her death had not been a
matter of much speculation. In an harem teeming with 5000 women it was difficult to keep track of
dates of death. Apparently the date of Mumtaz's death was so insignificant an event, as not to
merit any special notice. Who would then build a Taj for her burial?
BASELESS LOVE STORIES
52. Stories of Shahjahan's exclusive infatuation for Mumtaz's are concoctions. They have no basis
in history nor has any book ever written on their fancied love affairs. Those stories have been
invented as an afterthought to make Shahjahan's authorship of the Taj look plausible.
COST
53. The cost of the Taj is nowhere recorded in Shahjahan's court papers because Shahjahan
never built the Tajmahal. That is why wild estimates of the cost by gullible writers have ranged from
4 million to 91.7 million rupees.
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PERIOD OF CONSTRUCTION
54. Likewise the period of construction has been guessed to be anywhere between 10 years and
22 years. There would have not been any scope for guesswork had the building construction been
on record in the court papers.
ARCHITECTS
55. The designer of the Tajmahal is also variously mentioned as Essa Effendy, a Persian or Turk,
or Ahmed Mehendis or a Frenchman, Austin deBordeaux, or Geronimo Veroneo, an Italian, or
Shahjahan himself.
RECORDS DON'T EXIST
56. Twenty thousand labourers are supposed to have worked for 22 years during Shahjahan's
reign in building the Tajmahal. Had this been true, there should have been available in
Shahjahan's court papers design drawings, heaps of labour muster rolls, daily expenditure sheets,
bills and receipts of material ordered, and commisioning orders. There is not even a scrap of paper
of this kind.
57. It is, therefore, court flatterers,blundering historians, somnolent archeologists, fiction writers,
senile poets, careless tourists officials and erring guides who are responsible for hustling the world
into believing in Shahjahan's mythical authorship of the Taj.
58. Description of the gardens around the Taj of Shahjahan's time mention Ketaki, Jai, Jui,
Champa, Maulashree, Harshringar and Bel. All these are plants whose flowers or leaves are used
in the worship of Hindu deities. Bel leaves are exclusively used in Lord Shiva's worship. A
graveyard is planted only with shady trees because the idea of using fruit and flower from plants in
a cemetary is abhorrent to human conscience. The presence of Bel and other flower plants in the
Taj garden is proof of its having been a Shiva temple before seizure by Shahjahan.
59. Hindu temples are often built on river banks and sea beaches. The Taj is one such built on the
bank of the Yamuna river an ideal location for a Shiva temple.
60. Prophet Mohammad has ordained that the burial spot of a muslim should be inconspicous and
must not be marked by even a single tombstone. In flagrant violation of this, the Tajamhal has one
grave in the basement and another in the first floor chamber both ascribed to Mumtaz. Those two
centotaphs were infact erected by Shahjahan to bury the two tier Shivalingas that were
consecrated in the Taj. It is customary for Hindus to install two Shivalingas one over the other in
two stories as may be seen in the Mahankaleshwar temple in Ujjain and the Somnath temple
raised by Ahilyabai in Somnath Pattan.
61. The Tajmahal has identical entrance arches on all four sides. This is a typical Hindu building
style known as Chaturmukhi, i.e.,four faced.
THE HINDU DOME
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62. The Tajmahal has a reverberating dome. Such a dome is an absurdity for a tomb which must
ensure peace and silence. Contrarily reverberating domes are a neccesity in Hindu temples
because they create an ecstatic dinmultiplying and magnifying the sound of bells, drums and pipes
accompanying the worship of Hindu deities.
63. The Tajmahal dome bears a lotus cap. Original Islamic domes have a bald top as is
exemplified by the Pakistan Embassy in Chanakyapuri, New Delhi, and the domes in the
Pakistan's newly built capital Islamabad.
64. The Tajmahal entrance faces south. Had the Taj been an Islamic building it should have faced
the west.
TOMB IS THE GRAVE, NOT THE BUILDING
65. A widespread misunderstanding has resulted in mistaking the building for the grave.Invading
Islam raised graves in captured buildings in every country it overran. Therefore, hereafter people
must learn not to confound the building with the grave mounds which are grafts in conquered
buildings. This is true of the Tajmahal too. One may therefore admit (for arguments sake) that
Mumtaz lies buried inside the Taj. But that should not be construed to mean that the Taj was
raised over Mumtaz's grave.
66. The Taj is a seven storied building. Prince Aurangzeb also mentions this in his letter to
Shahjahan. The marble edifice comprises four stories including the lone, tall circular hall inside the
top, and the lone chamber in the basement. In between are two floors each containing 12 to 15
palatial rooms. Below the marble plinth reaching down to the river at the rear are two more stories
in red stone. They may be seen from the river bank. The seventh storey must be below the ground
(river) level since every ancient Hindu building had a subterranian storey.
67. Immediately bellow the marble plinth on the river flank are 22 rooms in red stone with their
ventilators all walled up by Shahjahan. Those rooms, made uninhibitably by Shahjahan, are kept
locked by Archealogy Department of India. The lay visitor is kept in the dark about them. Those 22
rooms still bear ancient Hindu paint on their walls and ceilings. On their side is a nearly 33 feet long
corridor. There are two door frames one at either end ofthe corridor. But those doors are
intriguingly sealed with brick and lime.
68. Apparently those doorways originally sealed by Shahjahan have been since unsealed and
again walled up several times. In 1934 a resident of Delhi took a peep inside from an opening in
the upper part of the doorway. To his dismay he saw huge hall inside. It contained many statues
huddled around a central beheaded image of Lord Shiva. It could be that, in there, are Sanskrit
inscriptions too. All the seven stories of the Tajmahal need to be unsealed and scoured to
ascertain what evidence they may be hiding in the form of Hindu images, Sanskrit inscriptions,
scriptures, coins and utensils.
69. Apart from Hindu images hidden in the sealed stories it is also learnt that Hindu images are
also stored in the massive walls of the Taj. Between 1959 and 1962 when Mr. S.R. Rao was the
Archealogical Superintendent in Agra, he happened to notice a deep and wide crack in the wall of
the central octagonal chamber of the Taj. When a part of the wall was dismantled to study the
crack out popped two or three marble images. The matter was hushed up and the images were
reburied where they had been embedded at Shahjahan's behest. Confirmation of this has been
obtained from several sources. It was only when I began my investigation into the antecedents of
the Taj I came across the above information which had remained a forgotten secret. What better
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proof is needed of the Temple origin of the Tajmahal? Its walls and sealed chambers still hide in
Hindu idols that were consecrated in it before Shahjahan's seizure of the Taj.
PRE-SHAHJAHAN REFERENCES TO THE TAJ
70. Apparently the Taj as a central palace seems to have an chequered history. The Taj was
perhaps desecrated and looted by every Muslim invader from Mohammad Ghazni onwards but
passing into Hindu hands off and on, the sanctity of the Taj as a Shiva temple continued to be
revived after every muslim onslaught. Shahjahan was the last muslim to desecrate the Tajmahal
alias Tejomahalay.
71. Vincent Smith records in his book titled `Akbar the Great Moghul' that `Babur's turbulent life
came to an end in his garden palace in Agra in 1630'. That palace was none other than the
Tajmahal. 72. Babur's daughter Gulbadan Begum in her chronicle titled `Humayun Nama' refers to
the Taj as the Mystic House.
73. Babur himself refers to the Taj in his memoirs as the palace captured by Ibrahim Lodi
containing a central octagonal chamber and having pillars on the four sides. All these historical
references allude to the Taj 100 years before Shahjahan.
74. The Tajmahal precincts extend to several hundred yards in all directions. Across the river are
ruins of the annexes of the Taj, the bathing ghats and a jetty for the ferry boat. In the Victoria
gardens outside covered with creepers is the long spur of the ancient outer wall ending in a
octagonal red stone tower. Such extensive grounds all magnificently done up, are a superfluity for
a grave.
75. Had the Taj been specially built to bury Mumtaz, it should not have been cluttered with other
graves. But the Taj premises contain several graves atleast in its eastern and southern pavilions.
76. In the southern flank, on the other side of the Tajganj gate are buried in identical pavilions
queens Sarhandi Begum, and Fatehpuri Begum and a maid Satunnisa Khanum. Such parity burial
can be justified only if the queens had been demoted or the maid promoted. But since Shahjahan
had commandeered (not built) the Taj, he reduced it general to a muslim cemetary as was the
habit of all his Islamic predeccssors, and buried a queen in a vacant pavillion and a maid in
another idenitcal pavilion.
77. Shahjahan was married to several other women before and after Mumtaz. She, therefore,
deserved no special consideration in having a wonder mausoleum built for her.
78. Mumtaz was a commoner by birth and so she did not qualify for a fairyland burial.
79. Mumtaz died in Burhanpur which is about 600 miles from Agra. Her grave there is intact.
Therefore ,the centotaphs raised in stories of the Taj in her name seem to be fakes hiding in Hindu
Shiva emblems.
80. Shahjahan seems to have simulated Mumtaz's burial in Agra to find a pretext to surround the
temple palace with his fierce and fanatic troops and remove all the costly fixtures in his treasury.
This finds confirmation in the vague noting in the Badshahnama which says that the Mumtaz's
(exhumed) body was brought to Agra from Burhanpur and buried `next year'. An official term would
not use a nebulous term unless it is to hide some thing.
81. A pertinent consideration is that a Shahjahan who did not build any palaces for Mumtaz while
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she was alive, would not build a fabulous mausoleum for a corpse which was no longer kicking or
clicking.
82. Another factor is that Mumtaz died within two or three years of Shahjahan becoming an
emperor. Could he amass so much superflous wealth in that short span as to squander it on a
wonder mausoleum?
83. While Shahjahan's special attachment to Mumtaz is nowhere recorded in history his amorous
affairs with many other ladies from maids to mannequins including his own daughter Jahanara, find
special attention in accounts of Shahjahan's reign. Would Shahjahan shower his hard earned
wealth on Mumtaz's corpse?
84. Shahjahan was a stingy, usurious monarch. He came to throne murdering all his rivals. He was
not therefore, the doting spendthrift that he is made out to be.
85. A Shahjahan disconsolate on Mumtaz's death is suddenly credited with a resolve to build the
Taj. This is a psychological incongruity. Grief is a disabling, incapacitating emotion.
86. A infatuated Shahjahan is supposed to have raised the Taj over the dead Mumtaz, but carnal,
physical sexual love is again a incapacitating emotion. A womaniser is ipso facto incapable of any
constructive activity. When carnal love becomes uncontrollable the person either murders
somebody or commits suicide. He cannot raise a Tajmahal. A building like the Taj invariably
originates in an ennobling emotion like devotion to God, to one's mother and mother country or
power and glory.
87. Early in the year 1973, chance digging in the garden in front of the Taj revealed another set of
fountains about six feet below the present fountains. This proved two things. Firstly, the
subterranean fountains were there before Shahjahan laid the surface fountains. And secondly that
those fountains are aligned to the Taj that edifice too is of pre Shahjahan origin. Apparently the
garden and its fountains had sunk from annual monsoon flooding and lack of maintenance for
centuries during the Islamic rule.
89. The stately rooms on the upper floor of the Tajmahal have been striped of their marble mosaic
by Shahjahan to obtain matching marble for raising fake tomb stones inside the Taj premises at
several places. Contrasting with the rich finished marble ground floor rooms the striping of the
marble mosaic covering the lower half of the walls and flooring of the upper storey have given
those rooms a naked, robbed look. Since no visitors are allowed entry to the upper storey this
despoilation by Shahjahan has remained a well guarded secret. There is no reason why
Shahjahan's loot of the upper floor marble should continue to be hidden from the public even after
200 years of termination of Moghul rule.
90. Bernier, the French traveller has recorded that no non muslim was allowed entry into the secret
nether chambers of the Taj because there are some dazzling fixtures there. Had those been
installed by Shahjahan they should have been shown the public as a matter of pride. But since it
was commandeered Hindu wealth which Shahjahan wanted to remove to his treasury, he didn't
want the public to know about it.
91. The approach to Taj is dotted with hillocks raised with earth dugout from foundation trenches.
The hillocks served as outer defences of the Taj building complex. Raising such hillocks from
foundation earth, is a common Hindu device of hoary origin. Nearby Bharatpur provides a graphic
parallel.
Peter Mundy has recorded that Shahjahan employed thousands of labourers to level some of
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those hillocks. This is a graphic proof of the Tajmahal existing before Shahjahan.
93. At the backside of the river bank is a Hindu crematorium, several palaces, Shiva temples and
bathings of ancient origin. Had Shahjahan built the Tajmahal, he would have destroyed the Hindu
features.
94. The story that Shahjahan wanted to build a Black marble Taj across the river, is another
motivated myth. The ruins dotting the other side of the river are those of Hindu structures
demolished during muslim invasions and not the plinth of another Tajmahal. Shahjahan who did
not even build the white Tajmahal would hardly ever think of building a black marble Taj. He was
so miserly that he forced labourers to work gratis even in the superficial tampering neccesary to
make a Hindu temple serve as a Muslim tomb.
95. The marble that Shahjahan used for grafting Koranic lettering in the Taj is of a pale white
shade while the rest of the Taj is built of a marble with rich yellow tint. This disparity is proof of the
Koranic extracts being a superimposition.
96. Though imaginative attempts have been made by some historians to foist some fictitious name
on history as the designer of the Taj others more imaginative have credited Shajahan himself with
superb architechtural proficiency and artistic talent which could easily conceive and plan the Taj
even in acute bereavement. Such people betray gross ignorance of history in as much as
Shajahan was a cruel tyrant ,a great womaniser and a drug and drink addict.
97. Fanciful accounts about Shahjahan commisioning the Taj are all confused. Some asserted that
Shahjahan ordered building drawing from all over the world and chose one from among them.
Others assert that a man at hand was ordered to design a mausoleum and his design was
approved. Had any of those versions been true Shahjahan's court papers should have had
thousands of drawings concerning the Taj. But there is not even a single drawing. This is yet
another clinching proof that Shahjahan did not commision the Taj.
98. The Tajmahal is surrounded by huge mansions which indicate that several battles have been
waged around the Taj several times.
99. At the south east corner of the Taj is an ancient royal cattle house. Cows attached to the
Tejomahalay temple used to reared there. A cowshed is an incongruity in an Islamic tomb.
100. Over the western flank of the Taj are several stately red stone annexes. These are superflous
for a mausoleum.
101. The entire Taj complex comprises of 400 to 500 rooms. Residential accomodation on such a
stupendous scale is unthinkable in a mausoleum.
102. The neighbouring Tajganj township's massive protective wall also encloses the Tajmahal
temple palace complex. This is a clear indication that the Tejomahalay temple palace was part and
parcel of the township. A street of that township leads straight into the Tajmahal. The Tajganj gate
is aligned in a perfect straight line to the octagonal red stone garden gate and the stately entrance
arch of the Tajmahal. The Tajganj gate besides being central to the Taj temple complex, is also put
on a pedestal. The western gate by which the visitors enter the Taj complex is a camparatively
minor gateway. It has become the entry gate for most visitors today because the railway station
and the bus station are on that side.
103. The Tajmahal has pleasure pavilions which a tomb would never have.
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104. A tiny mirror glass in a gallery of the Red Fort in Agra reflects the Taj mahal. Shahjahan is
said to have spent his last eight years of life as a prisoner in that gallery peering at the reflected
Tajmahal and sighing in the name of Mumtaz. This myth is a blend of many falsehoods. Firstly,old
Shajahan was held prisoner by his son Aurangzeb in the basement storey in the Fort and not in an
open,fashionable upper storey. Secondly, the glass piece was fixed in the 1930's by Insha Allah
Khan, a peon of the archaelogy dept.just to illustrate to the visitors how in ancient times the entire
apartment used to scintillate with tiny mirror pieces reflecting the Tejomahalay temple a thousand
fold. Thirdly, a old decrepit Shahjahan with pain in his joints and cataract in his eyes, would not
spend his day craning his neck at an awkward angle to peer into a tiny glass piece with bedimmed
eyesight when he could as well his face around and have full,direct view of the Tjamahal itself. But
the general public is so gullible as to gulp all such prattle of wily, unscrupulous guides.
105. That the Tajmahal dome has hundreds of iron rings sticking out of its exterior is a feature
rarely noticed. These are made to hold Hindu earthen oil lamps for temple illumination.
106. Those putting implicit faith in Shahjahan authorship of the Taj have been imagining
Shahjahan-Mumtaz to be a soft hearted romantic pair like Romeo and Juliet. But contemporary
accounts speak of Shahjahan as a hard hearted ruler who was constantly egged on to acts of
tyranny and cruelty, by Mumtaz.
107. School and College history carry the myth that Shahjahan reign was a golden period in which
there was peace and plenty and that Shahjahan commisioned many buildings and patronized
literature. This is pure fabrication. Shahjahan did not commision even a single building as we have
illustrated by a detailed analysis of the Tajmahal legend. Shahjahn had to enrage in 48 military
campaigns during a reign of nearly 30 years which proves that his was not a era of peace and
plenty.
108. The interior of the dome rising over Mumtaz's centotaph has a representation of Sun and
cobras drawn in gold. Hindu warriors trace their origin to the Sun. For an Islamic mausoleum the
Sun is redundant. Cobras are always associated with Lord Shiva.
FORGED DOCUMENTS
109. The Muslim caretakers of the tomb in the Tajmahal used to possess a document which they
styled as "Tarikh-i-Tajmahal". Historian H.G. Keene has branded it as `a document of doubtful
authenticity'. Keene was uncannily right since we have seen that Shahjahan not being the creator
of the Tajmahal any document which credits Shahjahn with the Tajmahal, must be an outright
forgery. Even that forged document is reported to have been smuggled out of Pakistan. Besides
such forged documents there are whole chronicles on the Taj which are pure concoctions.
110. There is lot of sophistry and casuistry or atleast confused thinking associated with the Taj
even in the minds of proffesional historians, archaelogists and architects. At the outset they assert
that the Taj is entirely Muslim in design. But when it is pointed out that its lotus capped dome and
the four corner pillars etc. are all entirely Hindu those worthies shift ground and argue that that was
probably because the workmen were Hindu and were to introduce their own patterns. Both these
arguments are wrong because Muslim accounts claim the designers to be Muslim,and the workers
invariably carry out the employer's dictates.
The Taj is only a typical illustration of how all historic buildings and townships from Kashmir to
Cape Comorin though of Hindu origin have been ascribed to this or that Muslim ruler or courtier.
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It is hoped that people the world over who study Indian history will awaken to this new finding and
revise their erstwhile beliefs.
Those interested in an indepth study of the above and many other revolutionary rebuttals may read
this author's other research books.

Tata Consultancy Services PASSAGES:

PASSAGE A: My father has no brothers. He has three sisters who has two childs each.

Answer 1-5 based on the passage A

1.My grandfather has two sons .

Ans. False


2. Three of my aunts have two sons

Ans. Can't say


3. My father is only child to his father

Ans. False


4. I have six cousins from my mother side

Ans. Can't say


5. I have one uncle

Ans. Can't say(uncle can be from the mother's side as well)



PASSAGE B: Ether injected into gallablader to dissolve colestrol based gallstones. This type one day treatment is enough for gallstones not for calcium stones. This method is alternative to surgery for millions of people who are suffering from this disease.

Answer questions 6-9 based on passage B

6.Calcium stones can be cured in oneday

Ans. False


7. Hundreds of people contains calcium stones

Ans. Can't say


8. Surgery is the only treatment to calcium stones

Ans. True


9. Ether will be injected into the gallbleder to cure the cholestrol based gall stones

Ans. True



PASSAGE C: Hacking is illegal entry into another computer. This happens mostly because of lack of knowledge of computer networking. With networks one machine can access to another machine.Hacking go about without knowing that each network is accredited to use network facility.

Answer questions 10-12 based on passage B

10. Hackers never break the code of the company which they work for

Ans. Can't say


11. Hacking is the only vulnerability of the computers for the usage of the data

Ans. False


12.Hacking is done mostly due to the lack of computer knowledge

Ans. False



PASSAGE C: Alphine tunnels are closed tunnels.In the past 30 yrs not even a single accident has been recorded for there is one accident in the rail road system. Even in case of a fire accident it is possible to shift the passengers into adjacent wagons and even the live fire can be detected and extinguished with in the duration of 30 min.

Answer questions 13-16 based on passage C

13. No accident can occur in the closed tunnels

Ans. True


14. Fire is allowed to live for 30 min

Ans. False


16. All the care that travel in the tunnels will be carried by rail shutters.

Ans.True



PASSAGE D: In the past helicopters were forced to ground or crash because of the formation of the ice on the rotors and engines. A new electronic device has been developed which can detect the watercontent in the atmosphere and warns the pilot if the temperature is below freezing temperature about the formation of the ice on the rotors and wings.

Answer questions 17-20 based on passage D

17.The electronic device can avoid formation of the ice on the wings

Ans.False


18. There will be the malfunction of rotor & engine because of formation of ice

Ans.True


19. The helicopters were to be crashed or grounded

Ans.True


20. There is only one device that warn about the formation of ice

Ans.True



PASSAGE E:In the survey conducted in mumbai out of 63 newly married house wives not a single house wife felt that the husbands should take equal part in the household work as they felt they loose their power over their husbands. Inspite of their careers they opt to do the kitchen work themselves after coming back to home. the wives get half as much leisure time as the husbands get at the week ends.

Answer questions 21-23 based on passage E

21.Housewives want the husbands to take part equally in the household

Ans.False


22. Wives have half as much leisure time as the husbands have

Ans. False


23. 39% of the men will work equally in the house in cleaning and washing

Ans. False



PASSAGE F:Copernicus is the intelligent. In the days of copernicus the transport and technology development was less & it took place weeks to comunicate a message at that time,wherein we can send it through satellite with in no time.Even with this fast developments it has become difficult to understand each other.

Answer questions 24-27 based on passage F

24. People were not intelligent during Copernicus days

Ans.False


25. Transport facilities are very much improved in noe a days

Ans.Can't say


26. Even with the fast developments of the techonology we can't live happily.

Ans. Can't say


27. We can understand the people very much with the development of communication

Ans. False.



PASSAGE G:Senior managers warned the workers that because of the intfoductors of japanese industry in the car market. There is the threat to the workers.They also said that there will be the reduction in the purchase of the sales of car in public.the interest rates of the car will be increased with the loss in demand.

Answer questions 28-31 based on passage G

28. Japanese workers are taking over the jobs of indian industry.

Ans.False


29.Managers said car interests will go down after seeing the raise in interest rates.

Ans.True


30. Japanese investments are ceasing to end in the car industry.

Ans. False


31. People are very interested to buy the cars.

Ans.False



PASSAGE H:In the totalitariturican days,the words have very much devalued.In the present day,they are becoming domestic that is the words will be much more devalued. In that days, the words will be very much effected in political area.but at present,the words came very cheap .We can say they come free at cost.

Answer questions 32-34 based on passage H

32.Totalitarian society words are devalued.

Ans.False


33. Totalitarians will have to come much about words

Ans.True


34. The art totalitatian society the words are used for the political speeches.

Ans. False



PASSAGE I:There should be copyright for all arts. The reele has came that all the arts has come under one copy right society,they were use the money that come from the arts for the developments . There may be a lot of money will come from the Tagore works. We have to ask the benifiters from Tagore work to help for the development of his works.

Answer questions 35-39 based on passage I

35. Tagore works are came under this copy right rule.

Ans. False


36. People are free to go to the public because of the copy right rule.

Ans.Can't say


38. People gives to theater and collect the money for development.

Ans.Can't say


39. We have ask the Tagore resedents to help for the developments of art.

Ans.Can't say

Tata Consultancy Services :PHYSCOMETRY TEST


Direction:
In this section you will find different questions with the same meaning. In all such questions your answer has to be same. for e.g.:
In being thrown by chance with a stranger, you wait for the person to introduce himself or herself.
(a) Yes (b) No (c) ?

It is difficult for you to chat about things in general with people.
(a) Yes (b) No (c) ?

These two questions have similar meanings. If you answer the first one 'NO' and the second one 'YES', i.e. if you differ in your answers to similar questions you lose marks for every question with the above meaning.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The choices to these questions are:
(a) Yes.
(b) No.
(c) ?

1. You start to work on a project with great deal of enthusiasm.
2. You would rather plan an activity than take part in it.
3. You have more than once taken lead in organizing project or a group of some kind.
4. You like to entertain guests.
5. Your interests change quickly from one thing to another.
6. When you eat a meal with others, you are usually one of the last to finish.
7. You believe in the idea that we should " eat, drink and be merry, for tomorrow we die."
8. When you find that something you have bought is defective, you hesitate to demand an exchange or a
refund.
9. You find it easy to find new acquaintances.
10. You are sometimes bubbling over with energy and sometimes very sluggish.
11. You are happiest when you get involved in some projects that calls for rapid action.
12. Other people think of you as being very serious minded.
13. In being thrown by chance with a stranger, you wait for the person to introduce himself or herself.
14. You like to take part in many social activities.
15. You sometimes feel "just miserable" for no good reason at all.
16. You are often so much " on the go" that sooner or later you may wear yourself out.
17. You like parties you attend to be lively.
18. If you hold an opinion that is radically different that expressed by a lecturer, you are likely to tell the
person about it either during or after the lecture.
19. It is difficult for you to chat about things in general with people.
20. You give little thought to your failures after they are passed.
21. You often wonder where others get all the excess energy they seem to have.
22. You are inclined to stop to think things over before you act.
23. You avoid arguing over a price with a clerk or sales person.
24. You would dislike very much to work alone in some alone place.
25. You often find it difficult to go to sleep at night because you keep thinking of what happened during the
day.
26. You find yourself hurrying to get to places even when there is plenty of time.
27. You like work that requires considerable attention to details.
28. You are satisfied to let some one else take the lead in group activities.
29. You enjoy getting acquainted with people.
30. It takes a lot to get you emotionally stirred up or excited.
31. You work more slowly and deliberately than most people of your sex and age.
32. You are a carefree individual.
33. When people do not play fair you hesitate to say anything about it to them.
34. It bothers you to have people watch you at your work.
35. You have usually been optimistic about your future.
36. You like to have plenty of time to stop and rest.
37. You take life very seriously.
38. You enjoy applying for a job in person.
39. You would like to be a host or hostess for parties at club.
40. You often feel uncomfortable or uneasy.
41. You are the kind of person who is "on the go" all the time.
42. You often crave excitement.
43. The thought of making a speech frightens you.
44. You find it easy to start conversation with strangers.
45. You often feel guilty without a very good reason for it.
46. People think you are a very energetic person.
47. You sometimes make quick decisions that you later wish you hadn't made.
48. You find it difficult to ask people for money or other donations, even for a cause in which you are
interested.
49. You are so naturally friendly that people immediately feel at ease with you.
50. You daydream a great deal.
51. You are quick in your actions.
52. You have a habit of starting things and then losing interest in them.
53. When you were a child many of your playmates naturally expected you to be the leader.
54. You sometimes avoid social contacts for fear of doing or saying the wrong thing.
55. You have frequent ups and downs in mood, sometimes with and sometimes without apparent cause.
56. You always seem to have plenty of vigour and vitality.
57. It is difficult for you to understand people who get very concerned about things.
58. When a clerk in a store waits on others who come after you, you call his or her attention to the fact.
59. You would be very unhappy if you were prevented from making numerous social contacts.
60. There are times when your future looks very dark.
61. You sometimes wish that people would slow down a bit and give you a chance to catch up.
62. Many of your friends think you take your work too seriously.
63. You hesitate to walk into a meeting when you know that everyone's eye will be upon you.
64. You limit your friendships mostly to members of your own sex.
65. You almost always feel well and strong.
66. You seem to lack the drive necessary to get as much as other people do.
67. You make decisions on the spur of the moment.
68. You are rather good at bluffing when you find yourself in difficulty.
69. After being introduced to someone , you just cannot think of things to say to make good conversation.
70. You feel lonesome even when with other people.
71. You are able to work for unusually long hours without feeling tired.
72. You often act on the first thought that comes into your head.
73. At the scene of an accident, you take an active part in helping out.
74. You have difficulty in making new friends.
75. Your mood often changes from happiness to sadness or vice versa without knowing why.
76. You talk more slowly than most people.
77. You like to play practical jokes upon others.
78. You take the lead in putting life into a dull party.
79. You would like to belong to as many clubs and social organizations as possible.
80. There are times when your mind seems to work very slowly and other times when it works very rapidly.
81. You like to do things slowly and deliberately.
82. You are a happy-go-lucky individual.
83. When you are served stale or inferior food in a restaurant, you say nothing about it.
84. You would rather apply for a job by writing a letter than by going through with a personal interview.
85. You are often in low spirits.
86. You are inclined to rush from one activity to another without pausing enough for rest.
87. You are so concerned about the future that you do not get as much fun out of the present as you might.
88. When you are attracted to a person whom you have not met earlier you make an active attempt to get
acquainted even though it may be quite difficult.
89. You are inclined to limit your acquaintances to select few
90. you seldom give your past mistakes a second thought.
91. You are less energetic than many people you know.
92. You often stop to analyzed your thoughts and feelings.
93. You speak out in meetings to oppose those whom you feel sure are wrong.
94. You are so shy it bothers you.
95. You are sometimes bothered by having a useless thought come into your mind over and over.
96. You get things in hurry.
97. It is difficult for you to understand how some people can be so unconcerned about the future.
98. You lie to sell things (i.e. to act as a sales person)
99. You are often "Life of the Party".
100. You find daydreaming very enjoyable.
101. At work or at play other people find it hard to keep up with the pace you set.
102. You can listen to a lecture without feeling restless.
103. You would rather work for a good boss than for yourself.
104. You can express yourself more easily in speech than in writing.
105. You keep in fairly uniform spirits.
106. You dislike to be hurried in your work.
107. You sometimes find yourself "crossing bridges before you come to them".
108. You find it somewhat difficult to say "no" to a sales person who tries to sell you something you do not
really want.
109. There are only a few friends with whom you can relax and have a good time.
110. You usually keep cheerful in spite of trouble.
111. People sometimes tell you to "slow down" or "take it easy".
112. You are one of those who drink or smoke more than they know they should.
113. When you think you recognize people you see in a public place, you ask them whether you have met
them before.
114. You prefer to work alone.
115. Disappointment affect you so little that you seldom think about them twice.
116. You are slow and deliberate in movements.
117. You like wild enthusiasm, sometimes to a point bordering on rowdyism at a football or baseball game.
118. You feel self conscious in the presence of important people.
119. People think of you as being a very social type of person.
120. You have often lost sleep over your worries.
121. You can turn out a large amount of work in a short time.
122. You keep at a task until it is done, even after nearly everyone else has given up.
123. You can think of a good excuse when you need one.
124. Other people say that it is difficult to get to know you well.
125. You daydreams are often about things that can never come true.
126. You often run upstairs taking two steps at a time.
127. You seldom let your responsibility interfere with your having a good time.
128. You like to take on important responsibilities such as organizing a new business.
129. You have hesitated to make or to accept "dates" because of shyness.
130. Your mood is very easily influenced by people around you.
131. Others are often amazed by the amount of work you turn out.
132. You generally feel as though you haven't a care in the world.
133. You find it difficult to get rid of sales person whom you do not care to listen or give your time.
134. You are a listener rather than a talker in a social conversation.
135. You almost always feel that life is very much worth living.
136. It irritates you to have to wait at a crossing for a long freight train to pass.
137. You usually say what you feel like saying at the moment.
138. You like to speak in public.
139. You like to be with people.
140. You generally keep cool and think clearly in exciting situations.
141. Other people regard you as a lively individual.
142. When you get angry, if you let yourself go, you feel better.
143. You seek to avoid all trouble with other people.
144. People seem to enjoy being with you.
145. You sometimes feel listless and tired for no good reason.
146. It is hard to understand why many people are so slow and get so little done.
147. You are fond of betting on horse races and games, whether you can afford it or not.
148. If someone you know has been spreading untrue and bad stories about you, you see the person as
soon as possible and have a talk about it.
149. Shyness keep you from being as popular as you should be.
150. You are generally free from worry about possible misfortunes

Mphasis Quantitative Section Placement Paper

1.In a class composed of x girls and y boys what part of the class is composed of girls
A.y/(x + y)
B.x/xy
C.x/(x + y)
D.y/xy
Ans.C

2.What is the maximum number of half-pint bottles of cream that can be filled with a 4-gallon can of cream(2 pt.=1 qt. and 4 qt.=1 gal)
A.16
B.24
C.30
D.64
Ans.D
3.If the operation,^ is defined by the equation x ^ y = 2x + y,what is the value of a in 2 ^ a = a ^ 3
A.0
B.1
C.-1
D.4
Ans.B
4.A coffee shop blends 2 kinds of coffee,putting in 2 parts of a 33p. a gm. grade to 1 part of a 24p. a gm.If the mixture is changed to 1 part of the 33p. a gm. to 2 parts of the less expensive grade,how much will the shop save in blending 100 gms.
A.Rs.90
B.Rs.1.00
C.Rs.3.00
D.Rs.8.00
Ans.C
5.There are 200 questions on a 3 hr examination.Among these questions are 50 mathematics problems.It is suggested that twice as much time be spent on each maths problem as for each other question.How many minutes should be spent on mathematics problems
A.36
B.72
C.60
D.100
Ans.B
6.In a group of 15,7 have studied Latin, 8 have studied Greek, and 3 have not studied either.How many of these studied both Latin and Greek
A.0
B.3
C.4
D.5
Ans.B
7.If 13 = 13w/(1-w) ,then (2w)2 =
A.1/4
B.1/2
C.1
D.2
Ans.C
8. If a and b are positive integers and (a-b)/3.5 = 4/7, then
(A) b < a
(B) b > a
(C) b = a
(D) b >= a
Ans. A
9. In june a baseball team that played 60 games had won 30% of its game played. After a phenomenal winning streak this team raised its average to 50% .How many games must the team have won in a row to attain this average?
A. 12
B. 20
C. 24
D. 30
Ans. C
10. M men agree to purchase a gift for Rs. D. If three men drop out how much more will each have to contribute towards the purchase of the gift/
A. D/(M-3)
B. MD/3
C. M/(D-3)
D. 3D/(M2-3M)
Ans. D
11. A company contracts to paint 3 houses. Mr.Brown can paint a house in 6 days while Mr.Black would take 8 days and Mr.Blue 12 days. After 8 days Mr.Brown goes on vacation and Mr. Black begins to work for a period of 6 days. How many days will it take Mr.Blue to complete the contract?
A. 7
B. 8
C. 11
D. 12
Ans.C
12. 2 hours after a freight train leaves Delhi a passenger train leaves the same station travelling in the same direction at an average speed of 16 km/hr. After travelling 4 hrs the passenger train overtakes the freight train. The average speed of the freight train was?
A. 30
B. 40
C.58
D. 60
Ans. B
13. If 9x-3y=12 and 3x-5y=7 then 6x-2y = ?
A.-5
B. 4
C. 2
D. 8
Ans. D

COMPUTER AWARENESS TEST






1.In the command scanf, h is used for
Ans. Short int

2.A process is defined as
Ans. Program in execution

3.A thread is
Ans. Detachable unit of executable code)

4.What is the advantage of Win NT over Win 95
Ans. Robust and secure
5.How is memory management done in Win95
Ans. Through paging and segmentation
6.What is meant by polymorphism
Ans. Redfinition of a base class method in a derived class
7.What is the essential feature of inheritance
Ans. All properties of existing class are derived
8.What does the protocol FTP do
Ans. Transfer a file b/w stations with user authentification
9.In the transport layer ,TCP is what type of protocol
Ans. Connection oriented
10.Why is a gateway used
Ans. To connect incompatible networks
11.How is linked list implemented
Ans. By referential structures
12.What method is used in Win95 in multitasking
Ans. Non preemptive check
13.What is meant by functional dependency
14.What is a semaphore
Ans. A method synchronization of multiple processes
15.What is the precedence order from high to low ,of the symbols ( ) ++ /
Ans.( ) , ++, /
16.Preorder of A*(B+C)/D-G
Ans.*+ABC/-DG
18. B-tree (failure nodes at same level)
19. Dense index (index record appers for every search -key in file)
20.What is the efficiency of merge sort
Ans. O(n log n)
21.A program on swaping ( 10,5 )was given (candidate cannot recollect)
22.In which layer are routers used
Ans.In network layer
23.In which layer are packets formed ( in network layer )
24.heap ( priority queue )
25.copy constructor ( constant reference )
26.Which of the following sorting algorithem has average sorting behavior --
Bubble sort,merge sort,heap sort,exchange sort
Ans. Heap sort
27.In binary search tree which traversal is used for getting ascending order values--Inorder ,post order,preorder
Ans.Inorder
28.What are device drivers used for
Ans.To provide software for enabling the hardware
29. Irrevalent to unix command ( getty)
30.What is fork command in unix
Ans. System call used to create process
31.What is make command in unix
Ans. Used forcreation of more than one file
32.In unix .profile contains
Ans. Start up program
33.In unix echo is used for ( answer C)
34.In unix 'ls 'stores contents in
Ans.inode block

Friday, February 26, 2010

Barron's GRE word list

abase lower; degrade; humiliate; make humble; make (oneself) lose self-respect
abash embarrass
abate subside or moderate
abbreviate shorten
abdicate renounce; give up (position, right, or responsibility)
aberrant abnormal or deviant
aberration deviation from the normal; mental disorder
abet assist usually in doing something wrong; encourage
abeyance suspended action
abhor detest; hate
abide dwell; abide by: comply with; put up with; tolerate; Ex. abide by the rules; Ex. I can't abide rude people.
abject (of a condition) wretched; as low as possible; lacking pride; very humble; showing lack of self-respect; Ex. abject apology
abjure renounce upon oath
ablution washing
abnegation renunciation; self-sacrifice; self-abnegation
abode dwelling place; home
abolish cancel; put an end to
abominable detestable; extremely unpleasant
abominate loathe; hate
aboriginal being the first of its kind in a region; primitive; native; indigenous; N. aborigine
abortive unsuccessful; fruitless
abrasive rubbing away; tending to grind down
abridge condense or shorten
abrogate abolish
abscission cutting off; separation
abscond depart secretly and hide
absolute complete; totally unlimited; having complete power; certain; not relative; Ex. absolute honesty/ruler; CF. absolutism
absolve pardon (an offense)
abstain refrain; withhold from participation; intentionally not use one's vote;
abstemious sparing in eating and drinking; temperate
abstinence restraint from pleasant things, esp. eating or drinking; CF. abstention: act of abstaining from vote
abstract theoretical; not concrete; nonrepresentational
abstruse obscure; profound; difficult to understand
abusive coarsely insulting; physically harmful
abut border upon; adjoin
abysmal bottomless
abyss enormous chasm; vast bottomless pit
academic related to a school; not practical or directly useful
accede agree
accelerate move faster
accessible easy to approach; obtainable
accessory additional object; useful but not essential thing
acclaim applaud; praise; greet with great approval; announce with great approval; Ex. The new drung has been acclaimed as the most important discoveries for years; N: strong expression of approval and praise
acclimate adjust to climate or environment; adapt
acclivity sharp upslope of a hill; OP. declivity
accolade award of merit; strong praise and approval
accommodate oblige or help someone; adjust or bring into harmony; adapt; make enough space for; ADJ. accommodative; CF. accomodating: helpful and obliging
accomplice partner in crime
accord agreement
accost approach and speak first to a person
accoutre equip; N. accoutrement
accretion growth or increase in size by gradual addition; growth; increase; increase by natural growth; Ex. towers and other accretions of the castle; V. accrete
accrue come to one as a gain; accumulate over time; come about by addition; Ex. benefits that accrue from scientific research; Ex. interest accruing in a bank account; N. accrual
acerbity bitterness of speech and temper; ADJ. acerbic: bitter; acrid (in taste, manner, or tone)
acetic vinegary
acidulous slightly sour (in taste or manner); sharp; caustic
acknowledge recognize; admit
acme peak; pinnacle; highest point
acne skin disease (on the face)
acoustics science of sound; quality that makes a room easy or hard to hear in
acquiesce assent; agree passively; comply without protest
acquittal deliverance from a charge; V. acquit: free from a charge or accusation; discharge from a duty; conduct (oneself) in a specified manner
acrid bitter (to the taste or smell); sharp; bitterly pungent
acrimonious stinging; caustic; bitter in words or manner; N. acrimony: bitter ill-natured animosity in speech or behavior
acrophobia fear of heights
actuarial calculating; pertaining to insurance statistics
actuary someone who advises insurance companies
actuate motivate; activate; cause to act
acuity sharpness (of mind or senses of sight or hearing)
acumen mental keenness; sharpness of judgment; ability to judge quickly and well; Ex. business acumen
acute (of the senses) sharp; quickly perceptive; keen; penetrating; brief and severe; Ex. acute sense of smell/analysis/pain
adage wise saying; proverb
adamant hard; inflexible
adapt make or become suitable for a specific use; alter; modify; adjust; N. adaptation: act of adapting; composition recast into a new form; Ex. The play is an adaption of a short novel.
addendum addition; appendix to book; something that is added (as at the end of a speech or book)
addiction compulsive habitual need
addle make or become confused; muddle; drive crazy; become rotten (egg)
address direct a speech to; speak to; deal with or discuss; direct one's efforts or attention to; make with a destination; N: formal speech
adept expert at; very skilled
adhere stick fast; be a devotd follower; N. adhesion: adhering; devotion; loyality
adherent supporter; follower
adjacent adjoining; neighboring; close by
adjoin be next to
adjourn suspend until a later time; move from one place to another
adjunct something attached to but holding an inferior position
adjuration solemn urging; V. adjure: entreat earnestly; enjoin solemnly
adjutant staff officer assisting the commander; assistant
admonish warn or speak to with gentle disapproval; reprove
adore love deeply and respect highly
adorn decorate
adroit skillful (in using mind or hand)
adulation flattery; admiration that is more than is necessary or deserved
adulterate make impure or of poorer quality by adding inferior or tainted(contaminated) substances
Advent arrival
adventitious accidental; casual; happening by chance
adversary opponent; enemy
adverse going against; opposing; unfavorable; hostile
adversity great hardship or affliction; misfortune; calamitous event
advert refer
advocacy support; active pleading on behalf of someone or something
advocate speak in favor of; support (an idea or plan); urge; plead for
aegis shield; protection; defense
aerie(aery,eyrie,eyry) nest of a large bird of prey
aesthetic artistic; dealing with or capable of appreciating the beautiful (of a person or building); CF. aesthete; CF. aesthetics
affable easily approachable; easy to talk to; warmly friendly
affected artificial; pretended
affidavit written statement made under oath (for use as proof in a court of law)
affiliation joining; associating with
affinity feeling of kinship; similarity; Ex. strong affinity for her; Ex. many affinities between two languages
affirmation positive assertion; confirmation; solemn pledge by one who refuses to take an oath; V. affirm; ADJ. affirmative; CF. affirmative action: positive discrimination
affliction state of distress; trial; cause of distress or suffering; V. afflict: inflict grievous suffering on
affluence abundance; wealth
affront insult; offense; intentional act of disrespect; V: insult or hurt the feelings of intentionally
afterlife life after death; later part of one's life
agape openmouthed
agenda items of business at a meeting
agglomeration collection; heap; V. agglomerate: gather into a rounded mass; N. aggolmeate: jumbled mass; heap
aggrandize make greater; increase in power, wealth, rank, or honor; N. aggrandizement
aggregate sum; total; ADJ. V: gather into a mass or whole; accumulate; add up to; Ex. aggregate 100 dollars
aghast filled with great surprise or fear; horrified
agility nimbleness; ability to move quickly
agitate stir up; disturb
agnostic one who is skeptical of the existence or knowability of a god or any ultimate reality
agog highly excited; intensely curious
agrarian pertaining to land or its cultivation; Ex. agrarian reform
airy of air; high in the air; lofty; immaterial; unreal
alacrity cheerful promptness without reluctance
alchemy medieval chemistry
alcove nook; recess
alias an assumed name esp. by a criminal (usually to mislead people); ADV. alias
alienate make unfriendly or hostile; estrange; separate; change the ownership of
alimentary supplying nourishment
alimony payments made regularly to an ex-spouse after divorce
allay calm; pacify
allege state without proof
allegiance loyalty
allegory story, play, or picture in which characters are used as symbols; fable
alleviate relieve (pain)
alliteration repetition of beginning sound in poetry
allocate assign; set apart for a particular purpose
alloy mixture as of metals; something added that lowers in value or purity; V: mix; make less pure; lower in value or quality; spoil; CF. unalloyed: not in mixture with other maetals; pure; complete; unqualified; Ex. unalloyed happiness
allude refer indirectly; N. allusion: indirect reference
allure entice; attract; tempt
alluvial pertaining to soil deposits left by running water
alms money or goods given to the poor
aloft upward; high up in the air
aloof apart; not open in one's relationship with other people; reserved; ADV.
altercation noisy quarrel
altruistic unselfishly generous; concerned for others; N. altiruism: unselfish concern for the welfare of others; unselfishness; OP. egoism
amalgam combination of different things; mixture of metals (containing mercury) used for filling holes in teeth
amalgamate (of societies or groups) combine; unite in one body
amass collect (gradually, in a very large amount)
amazon female warrior
ambidextrous capable of using either hand with equal ease
ambience environment; atmosphere; Ex. restraurant with a pleasant ambience; ADJ. ambient: completely surrounding; Ex. ambient temperature
ambiguous unclear or doubtful in meaning; having more than one possible interpretation
ambivalence the state of having contradictory or conflicting emotional attitudes or opinions
amble walking at an easy unhurried pace; V: walk slowly and aimlessly
ambrosia food of the gods
ambulatory able to walk
ambush act of lying in wait to attack by surprise; sudden attack made from a concealed position; Ex. lie in ambush; V.
ameliorate improve
amenable obedient; compliant; readily managed; responsive; willing to be led; answerable or accountable legally; responsible; able to be tested by; Ex. amenable to sensible suggestions; Ex. He is very amenable; Ex. amenable to the usual tests
amend correct; change ; generally for the better
amenities convenient features that helps to make life pleasant; social courtesies
amiable agreeable; lovable; warmly friendly
amicable peaceful; politely friendly; not quarrelsome; Ex. amicable settlement
amiss wrong; faulty; Ex. something amiss; ADV.
amity friendship; peaceful relationship as between nations
amnesia loss of memory
amnesty pardon (allowed by government to political criminals)
amok(amuck) in a state of rage; Ex. run amok
amoral nonmoral; having no understanding of right and wrong
amorous moved by sexual love; loving; of sexual love; Ex. amorous advances
amorphous formless; lacking shape or definition
amphibian able to live both on land and in water; N.
amphitheater oval building with tiers of seats; CF. arena
ample enough; abundant; spacious; large in size; Ex. ample opportunity/garden; N. amplitude: quality of being ample; abundance; largeness of space
amplify increase in size or effect; expand; broaden or clarify by expanding; intensify; make stronger; Ex. amplify one's remarks with a graph
amputate cut off part of body; prune (a limb)
amulet charm; talisman; an object worn believed to protect against evil, bad luck
anachronism an error involving time in a story; something or someone misplaced in time; ADJ. anachronistic
analgesia condition of being unable to feel pain
analgesic causing insensitivity to pain; N.
analogous comparable; similar
analogy similarity; parallelism; comparing two similar things
anarchist person who seeks to overturn the established government; advocate of abolishing authority
anarchy absence of governing body; state of disorder
anathema solemn curse; someone or something regarded as a curse; V. anathematize
ancestry family descent; ADJ. ancestral
anchor secure or fasten firmly; be fixed in place; N. anchorage
ancillary serving as an aid or accessory; auxiliary; N.
anecdote short story of an amusing or interesting event
anemia condition in which blood lacks red corpuscles; ADJ. anemic
anesthetic substance that removes sensation with or without loss of consciousness; N. anesthesia
anguish acute pain; extreme suffering
angular sharp-cornered; having an angle; not rounded (body); bony; lean; gaunt; stiff in manner
animadversion critical remark; V. animadvert: comment critically with disapproval
animated lively; spirited
animosity active enmity
animus hostile feeling or intent; animosity; hostility; disposition
annals records arranged in yearly parts; history
anneal reduce brittleness and improve toughness by heating and cooling (metal or glass)
annex attach; add to a large thing; take possession of; incorporate (territory) into a larger existing political unit (by force); N: building added to a large one
annihilate destroy
annotate comment; make explanatory notes
annuity yearly allowance
annul make void
anodyne drug that relieves pain or trouble;opiate; ADJ. Ex. anodyne statement
anoint consecrate; put oil on (in a religious ceremony)
anomalous abnormal; irregular
anomaly irregularity
anonymity state of being nameless; anonymousness; ADJ. anonymous
antagonism hostility; active opposition; V. antagonize: cause to become an enemy; N. antagonist: person who is opposed to another; opponent; adversary; principal character in oppostion to the protagonist
antecede precede
antecedents preceding events that influence what comes later; ancestors or early background
antediluvian antiquated; extremely ancient
anthem song of praise or patriotism; Ex. national anthem
anthology book of literary selections by various authors; CF. omnibus
anthropoid manlike; resembling a human being; N.
anthropologist student of the history and science of humankind
anthropomorphic having human form or characteristics
anticlimax letdown in thought or emotion; something unexciting, ordinary, or disappointing coming after something important or exciting
antidote remedy to counteract a poison or disease; Ex. antidote to the economic troubles
antipathy aversion; dislike or opposition
antiquated obsolete; old-fashioned; outdated
antique made in an earlier period and usu. valuable; N: object that was made in an earlier period and that is rare or valuable
antiquity quality of being very old; ancient times;
antiseptic substance that prevents infection in a wound; ADJ.
antithesis contrast; direct opposite of or to; ADJ. antithetic or antithetical
antler bony growth on the head of a deer
anvil iron block used in hammering out metals
apathy lack of caring; indifference; lack of concern or interest in important matters; Ex. He was sunk in apathy after his failure; ADJ. apathetic
ape imitate or mimic (a person's behavior or manner)
aperture opening; hole; adjustable opening in a camera that limits the amount of light
apex tip; summit; climax; highest point
aphasia loss of speech due to injury or illness
aphorism pithy maxim or saying; ADJ. aphoristic
apiarist person who keeps bees
apiary a place where bees are kept
apiculture bee-keeping
aplomb poise; composure in difficult situations; assurance; self-confidence
apocalyptic prophetic; pertaining to revelations especially of disaster; N. apocalypse
apocryphal (of a story) widely believed but untrue
apogee highest point; the point farthest from the earth; OP. perigee
apolitical having an aversion or lack of concern for political affairs
apologist one who writes in defense of a cause or institution; N. apologia
apoplexy stroke; loss of consciousness caused by too much blood in the brain
apostate one who abandons his religious faith or political beliefs; N. apostasy
apothecary druggist; pharmacist
apothegm(apophthegm) pithy, compact saying
apotheosis elevation to godhood; an ideal example of something
appall dismay; shock deeply
apparent evident; easily seen or understood; appearing as such; Ex. apparent improvement
apparition ghost; phantom
appease pacify or soothe; Ex. appease a crying baby; N. appeasement
appellation name; title
append attach
application diligent attention; diligence; V. apply oneself
apposite appropriate; fitting
appraise estimate value of; N. appraisal
appreciate be thankful for; increase in worth; be thoroughly conscious of; ADJ. appreciable: enough to be felt; Ex. appreciable difference
apprehend arrest (a criminal); dread; perceive; N. apprehension
apprehensive fearful; discerning
apprise inform
approbation approval
appropriate acquire; take possession of for one's own use without permission; set aside for a particular purpose; allocate; CF. misappropriate
appurtenances subordinate possessions; something added to a more important thing
apropos with reference to; regarding; Ex. remarks apropos (of) the present situation; ADJ. ADV.
aptitude fitness; talent
aquiline curved; hooked; of or like an eagle; Ex. aquiline nose
arable fit for growing crops; Ex. arable land
arbiter person with power to decide a matter in dispute; judge who is in a position ot make influential judgments; Ex. supreme arbiter of fashion in beachware
arbitrary unreasonable or capricious; random; tyrannical; Ex. arbitrary ruler
arbitrate act as judge (at the request of both sides)
arboreal of or living in trees
arboretum place where different trees and shrubs are studied and exhibited
arcade a covered passageway usually lined with shops
arcane esoteric; secret; mysterious; known only to the initiated; Ex. arcane ritual; Ex. arcane process closed to the uninitiated listener
arch- chief; first; Ex. archbishop
archaeology study of artifacts and relics of early mankind
archaic antiquated; no longer used; belonging to the past; N.
archetype prototype; primitive pattern
archipelago group of closely located islands
archives public records; place where public records are kept
ardor heat; passion; zeal; ADJ. ardent
arduous hard; strenuous; Ex. arduous work
argot slang; speech spoken by only a small group of people
aria operatic solo; a song sung by one person in an opera or oratorio
arid (of land) dry; barren; unproductive
aristocracy hereditary nobility; privileged class; government by nobility; N. aristocrat
armada fleet of warships
aromatic fragrant; having a sweet smell; N. aroma: strong pleasant smell
arraign charge in court; indict
array marshal; draw up in order; arrange in order; clothe splendidly; adorn; N: fine clothes; ordered group; Ex. in battle array
arrears being in debt; money that should have been paid; work that should have been done
arrhythmic lacking rhythm or regularity; N. arrhythmia
arrogance pride; haughtiness; ADJ. arrogant: unpleasantly self-important (with a strong confidence in one's own importance and a lack of respect for other people)
arroyo gully; narrow channel formed by rainwater
arsenal storage place for military equipment
artery blood-vessel; CF. vein
artful exhibiting art or skill; deceitful; cunning; CF. artifice
articulate effective; distinct; expressing ideas clearly; having clear sounds; having joints; Ex. articulate speech; V: express thoughts and feeling clearly; pronounce clearly; unite by joints
artifacts object made by human beings, either hand-made or mass-produced
artifice deception; trickery
artisan a manually skilled worker
artless without guile; open and honest
ascendancy controlling influence; position of controlling influence; CF. in the ascendant
ascertain find out for certain; make certain
ascetic practicing self-denial; avoiding physical pleasures and comforts; austere; Ex. ascetic life of Buddhist monks; N. asceticism
ascribe refer; attribute; assign
aseptic preventing infection; having a cleansing effect
ashen ash-colored; deadly pale
asinine stupid; Ex. asinine remarks
askance with a sideways or indirect look (with disapproval or distruct); Ex. look askance at
askew crookedly; slanted; at an angle
asperity sharpness; roughness; severity (of temper or weather); Ex. asperities of a Russian winter
aspersion slanderous remark; Ex. cast aspersions on
aspirant seeker after position or status
aspire seek to attain (position or status); long for; Ex. aspire to become president; Ex. aspire to/after the leadership
assail assault
assay analyze (to discover what materials are present); evaluate (soil or ore)
assent agree; accept; N. assessment
assert state strongly or positively; demand recognition of (rights, claims, etc.); make a claim to (by forceful action); Ex. assert one's independence
assiduous diligent
assimilate absorb; take (food) into the body and digest it; understand (knowledge) completely and be able to use properly; cause to become homogeneous (the people of a country or race in the wasy of behaving or thinking)
assuage mak less severe; ease or lessen (pain); satisfy (hunger); soothe (anger)
assumption something taken for granted; the taking over or taking possession of; Ex. her assumption of power; V. assume
assurance firm statement that something is certainly true; promise or pledge; certainty; confidence in one's own ability; self-confidence; Ex. In spite of all his assurances, he did not come back; Ex. assurance of his loyalty; Ex. The teacher lacked assurance in f
asteroid small planet
astigmatism eye defect which prevents proper focus; OP. stigmatism
astral relating to the stars
astringent binding; causing contraction (stopping bleeding); harsh or severe; stringent; Ex. astringent criticism
astronomical enormously large or extensive
astute wise; shrewd; keen; seeing quickly something that is to one's advantage
asunder into parts; apart; V. sunder
asylum place of refuge or shelter; protection (religious or political)
asymmetric not identical on both sides of a dividing central line
atavism resemblance to remote ancestors rather than to parents; reversion to an earlier type; throwback; ADJ. atavistic
atheistic denying the existence of God; N. atheism
atone make amends for; pay for; Ex. atone for
atrocity brutal deed; ADJ. atrocious
atrophy wasting away; V: weaken and lose flesh and muscle (through lack of blood or lack of use)
attentive alert and watchful; listening carefully; paying attention; considerate; thoughtful; politely helpful; Ex. attentive audience; Ex. He was attentive to the old lady; N. attentions: act of courtesy and consideration
attenuate make thin; weaken
attest testify; bear witness
attire clothe; N: clothing; array; apparel
attribute essential quality; V: ascribe; explain
attrition rubbing away by friction; gradual decrease in numbers or strength; reduction in the work force without firing employees; wearing away of opposition by means of harassment; Ex. a war of attrition
atypical not normal; not typical
audacious daring; bold; N. audacity
audit examination of accounts of a business; official examination; V.
augment increase; add to
augury omen; prophecy; sign of coming events; V. augur: predict; foretell; be a sign of (something in future)
august impressive; majestic
aureole sun's corona; halo; bright circle of light
auroral pertaining to the aurora borealis; CF. aurora australis
auspicious favoring success; giving signs of future success; Cf. auspices
austere forbiddingly stern; ascetic; without comfort or enjoyment; severely simple and unornamented; Ex. a monk's austere life; Ex. austere grandeur of the cathedral; N. austerity
authenticate prove genuine
authoritarian subordinating the individual to the state; completely dominating another's will; Ex. authoritarian regime/father
authoritative having the weight of authority; regarded as providing knowledge that can be trusted; reliable; peremptory and dictatorial; Ex. authoritative dictionary/manner; CF. definitive
autocratic having absolute unchecked power; dictatorial; N. autocrat, autocracy
automaton mechanism that imitates actions of humans; machine that works by itself
autonomous self-governing; N. autonomy
autopsy examination of a dead body; postmortem; V.
auxiliary offering or providing help; additional or subsidiary; N: helper; assistant
avalanche great mass of falling snow and ice
avantgarde group of artists whose work is based on the newest ideas and methods; CF. vanguard
avarice greediness for wealth
avenge take vengence for something or on behalf of someone; Ex. They avenged his death by burning the village; Ex. He swore to avenge his brother; Ex. They avenged themselves on their enemy.
aver state confidently; declare as true
averse reluctant; disinclined; not liking or opposed; Ex. averse to cats/doing the house work
aversion firm dislike
avert prevent; avoid; turn away (eyes or thought); Ex. An accident was averted by his quick thinking; Ex. She averted her eyes from the terrible sight.
aviary enclosure for birds; large cage
avid greedy; extremely eager for; Ex. avid learner; N. avidity
avocation secondary or minor occupation
avow declare openly; N. avowal
avuncular of or like an uncle
awe solemn wonder; feeling of respect mixed with wonder and fear; V: fill with awe; ADJ. awesome
awful terrible; very bad
awl pointed tool used for piercing
awry distorted; crooked; bent; Ex. Our plans have gone awry.
axiom self-evident truth requiring no proof
azure sky blue
babble chatter idly or foolishly; make continuous sounds like water running gently over rounded stone; N.
bacchanal noisy party with a lot of drinking
bacchanalia the ancient Roman festival in honor of Bacchus
bacchanalian drunken
backslide revert (to bad habits); N. reverter
backwards and forwards; Ex. reciprocate his invitation by inviting him; N. reciprocity: reciprocal relationship; mutual interchange of advantages between two groups; Ex. reciprocity in trading rights
badger pester; annoy continually with demands; persuade by asking again and again; Ex. The children badgered me into taking them into the cinema; N: a kind of mountain animal
badinage teasing conversation; banter; joking talk
baffle frustrate; perplex
bait harass; tease; torment; Ex. badger baiting; N: food or other lure used to catch fish or trap animals
baleful evil; malignant in intent or effect; deadly; having a malign influence; portending evil; ominous; threatening; Ex. baleful look
balk stop short, as if faced with an obstacle, and refuse to continue; foil; stop or get in the way of; frustrate
ballast heavy substance used to add stability or weight; V. supply with ballast
balm something that relieves pain; oily liquid with a pleasant smell from trees
balmy soft and mild (of air); fragrant
banal hackneyed; commonplace; trite; lacking originality; clich\'ed
bandy discuss lightly or glibly; discuss in a frivolous manner; exchange (words) heatedly; quarrel; Ex. bandy words with
bane posion; cause of ruin; ADJ. baneful: harmful; poisonous
bank heap; piled-up mass; embankment; lateral tilting (as of an aircraft in turning); V: pile up; protect with a bank; tilt in turning
bantering joking talk; good-naturedly ridiculing; N.V. banter
bar railing in a courtroom; legal profession; vertical line dividing a staff into equal measures; Ex. prisoner at the bar; V: shut in or out with bars; forbid; exclude; CF. barrister
barb sharp projection from fishhook, arrow, or other object; openly cutting remark
bard poet
barefaced shameless and noticeable; blatant; bold; unconcealed; having no covering on the face; Ex. barefaced lie
bargain agreement between two groups or people; something for sale at a price advantageous to the buyer; V: negotiate; trade; Ex. bargaining power
baroque highly ornate
barrage barrier laid down by artillery fire; overwhelming profusion; large number of questions or statements; Ex. a barrage of criticism
barrister counselor-at-law or lawyer in the higher court of law; CF. bar
barterer trader; V. barter: trade; exchange good for other goods rather than money
base contemptible; morally bad; inferior in value or quality; Ex. base motives/conduct; Ex. base metal such as iron
bask luxuriate; take pleasure in warmth
bastard illegitimate child
bastion stronghold; something seen as a source of protection; Ex. the last bastion of male chauvinism
bate let down; lessen the force of; moderate; restrain; Ex. with bated breath; CF. abate
battalion army unit made up of four or more companies
bauble trinket; cheap jewel; trifle
bawdy indecent; obscene; about sex in a rude funny way; CF. bawd
bearing deportment; connection
beatific giving or showing bliss; blissful
beatitude blessedness; state of great happiness
bedizen dress with vulgar finery
bedraggle wet thoroughly; ADJ. bedraggled: draggled
beeline direct quick route
befuddle confuse thoroughly
beget father; become the father of; produce; give rise to
begrudge envy; give or allow unwillingly; grudge; Ex. We shouldn't begrudge him his success.
beguile deceive; mislead or delude; cheat; pass time pleasantly; charm or attract; Ex. beguiling smile
behemoth huge creature; something of monstrous size or power
beholden obligated; indebted; owing thanks; obliged or indebted from gratitude
behoove(behove) be suited to; be incumbent upon; be right and necessary; Ex. It behooves one to do.
belabor harp on; dwell on tediously; explain or go over excessively or to a ridiculous degree; assail verbally; beat severely; attack physically
belated delayed
beleaguer besiege or attack (with an army); harass; beset
belie contradict; give a false impression; disguise; Ex. The poor sales belied our high hopes; Ex. Her smile belies her true feeling of displeasure.
belittle disparage; depreciate
bellicose warlike
belligerent quarrelsome
bemoan lament; moan for; express sorrow or disapproval of
bemused confused; lost in thought; preoccupied
benediction blessing
benefactor gift giver; patron; person who does good or who gives money for a good purpose
beneficent kindly; doing good
beneficial helpful; useful; advantageous
beneficiary person entitled to benefits or proceeds of an insurance policy or will
benefit advantage; anything that brings helpl, advantage, or profit; money provided by the government to the people; fund-raising public entertainment; Ex. unemployment benefit; V: receive benefits; be beneficial to; give benefits
benevolent generous; charitable; having a wish to do good
benign kindly; favorable; not malignant (disease); Ex. benign tumor
benison blessing
bent determined; Ex. bent on advancing in the business; N: natural talent or inclination
bequeath leave to someone by means of a will; hand down in his will; N. bequest
berate scold strongly
bereaved deprived of (someone beloved through death)
bereavement state of being deprived of something valuable or beloved; state of being bereaved or bereft
bereft deprived of (something valuable); lacking
berserk mad with violent anger; frenzied; madly excited
beseech beg; plead with
beset harass or trouble from all directions; hem in
besiege surround with armed forces; harass (with requests); annoy continually
besmirch soil; defile; make dirty
bestial beastlike; brutal; inhuman; very cruel
bestow confer
betoken signify; indicate; be a sign of
betray be unfaithful; reveal (unconsciously or unwillingly); Ex. Her trembling hands betray her anxiety.
betroth become engaged to marry
bevy large group; Ex. a bevy of starlets
beware be cautious (of)
bewitch cast a spell over; captivate completely
bicameral two-chambered as a legislative body
bicker quarrel
bid command; utter (a greeting); offer as a price; N: offer of a price; amount offered; earnest effort to gain something; Ex. bid for freedom
biennial every two years
bifurcated divided into two branches; forked
bigot one who is intolerant (in matters of religion or politics)
bigotry stubborn intolerance
bilious suffering from indigestion; sick from having too much bile; irritable; easily irritated
bilk swindle; cheat
billow large wave of water; a great swell or surge (of smoke); V: surge, swell, roll in billows
billowing swelling out in waves; surging
biting sharply painful to the body or mind; Ex. biting wind/remarks
bitter having a sharp biting taste; ¾´; causing sharp pain to the body or mind; filled with resentment, disappointment, or other unpleasant feelings; Ex. bitter wind/sorrow/tears
bivouac temporary encampment; camp without tents; V.
bizarre fantastic; violently contrasting; noticeably odd; strikingly unconventional
blackball vote against (an applicant); ostracize; N: negative vote
blanch bleach; whiten; make white or pale
bland soothing or mild (food); agreeable; causing no trouble or offence
blandishment flattery
blare loud or harsh roar or screech; dazzling blaze of light
blase bored with pleasure or dissipation; uninterested or bored
blasphemy irreverence; sacrilege; cursing; bad language about God or holy things; V. blasphem; ADJ. blasphemous; CF. sacrilege
blatant extremely (offensively) obvious; loudly offensive; Ex. blatant lie; N. blatancy
bleak cold or cheerless; frigid; unlikely to be favorable; depressing
blemish mar; spoil the beauty or perfection of; N: flaw or defect (that spoils perfection); Ex. blemishes in the crystal; CF. unblemished
blight plant disease; V: infect with blight; ruin; destroy
blighted suffering from a disease; destroyed
bliss complete happiness; ADJ. blissful
blithe(blithesome) gay; joyous
bloated (unpleasantly) swollen or puffed as with water or air
blotch spot; blot; CF. blot+botch
blowhard talkative boaster; braggart
bludgeon club; heavy-headed weapon; V.
blue gloomy; depressed
blues state of depression or melancholy; style of slow, mournful music (evolved from southern Black American songs)
bluff pretense (of strength); deception; high cliff; ADJ: rough but good-natured
blunder error; stupid mistake
blunt having a dull edge; abrupt and frank in speech or manner; brusque; V: make or become blunt
blurt utter impulsively from nervousness or excitement
blush become red in the face (from embarrassment or shame); become red or rosy; N.
bluster blow in heavy gusts; threaten emptily; bully; speak in a noisy or bullying manner; CF. breeze, gust, gale
bode foreshadow; portend
bog soft wet land; V: hinder or be hindered; Ex. bogged down in the mud
bogus counterfeit; not authentic; intentionally false; Ex. bogus interview
Bohemian unconventional (in an artistic way)
boisterous violent; rough; noisy
bolster support; reinforce
bolt door bar; fastening pin or screw; length of fabric; large roll of cloth; V: dash or dart off; fasten (a | door); gobble down
bombardment attack (as with missiles or bombs); V. bombard
bombast grandiloquent, pompous speech
bombastic pompous; using inflated language
bookish fond of books and reading
boon blessing; benefit; something very helpful
boor rude, insensitive person
boorish rude; insensitive
boost lift by pushing up from below; increase; raise; N: push upward; increase
botch mismanage; blow
bouillon clear beef (or meat) soup
bound leap or spring; limit or confine; constitute the limit of; Ex. bounded by Canada; N: leap or jumping; boundary; ADJ: certain; having a duty to do something (legally or morally); confined by bonds; Ex. We are bound to be late; Ex. I am bound to say my opi
bountiful generous; graciously generous; showing bounty
bourgeois middle class; selfishly materialistic; too interested in material possessions
bout match; short period of great activity; Ex. wrestling bout; bout of drinking/flu
bovine cowlike; placid and dull; slow-thinking; calm
bowdlerize expurgate; CF. Thomas Bowdler
brackish somewhat saline
brag boast
braggadocio boasting
braggart boaster; bragger
braid plait; interweave strands or lengths of; make by weaving strands together; N: braided segment (as of hair)
brand trademark; mark burned on the hide of an animal; mark burned into the flesh of criminals; mark of disgrace; V: mark with a brand; give a lasting bad name; stigmatize; Ex. The press branded him a liar.
brandish wave around (a weapon); flourish
bravado swagger; assumed air of defiance; false show of bravery
brave face courageously; Ex. brave the storm
brawl noisy quarrel
brawn human muscle; muscular strength; sturdiness
brawny muscular; having well-developed muscles
brazen insolent; without shame; bold; Ex. brazen lie; V: face with bold self-assurance or with unshamed confidence
breach breaking of contract or duty; fissure or gap; opening; V.
breadth width; extent
breed produce young; rear; bring up; produce (an undesirable condition); N: kind or sort of animal or plant
brevity conciseness; shortness of duration
bridle harness fitted about a horse's head (used to restrain); curb; check; V: put a bridle on; control or restrain; show anger
brim uppermost edge of a cup; projecting rim (as on a hat); Ex. The glass was full to the brim; V: be full to the brim
brindled tawny or grayish with streaks or spots (of animals)
brink edge (at the top of a cliff); Ex. on the brink of the Grand Canyon
brisk quick and active; marked by liveliness and vigor
bristle short stiff hair; V: (hair or fur) stand up stiffly
bristling rising like bristles; showing irritation
brittle hard but easily broken; difficult; unstable; Ex. brittle situation
broach introduce as a subject; moot; open up
brocade rich, figured(patterned) fabric
brochure pamphlet
broil cook by direct heat; N.
bromide platitude; chemical compound used to calm excitement
brooch ornamental clasp; pin
brood sit on in order to hatch; think deeply or worry anxiously; N: the young of certain animals; group of young birds hatched at one time
brook tolerate; endure; Ex. brook no interference; N: small stream
browbeat bully; intimidate
browse graze; feed on growing grass; skim or glance at casually
bruise injure without breaking the skin; N.
brunt main impact or shock (of an attack or blow); Ex. brunt of the argument
brusque blunt; abrupt; curt; not wanting to waste time being nice
buccaneer pirate
bucolic rustic; pastoral
buffet strike forcefully; slap; batter; knock out; N: table with food set out for people to server themselves; meal at which people help themselves to food that's been set
buffoon stupid person; clown
buffoonery clowning
bugaboo bugbear; object of baseless terror
bulge protruding part; swelling of a surface; Ex. The apple made a bulge in his pocket; V: swell outward; protrude
bulk size or volume (esp. when very large); main part; Ex. The bulk of the work has already been done; ADJ. bulky: having great size
bullion gold and silver in the form of bars
bully one who is habitually cruel to weaker people; V.
bulwark strong wall built for defense; earthwork or other strong defense; person who defends
bump hit or knock against with force; N.
bungle mismanage; blunder; botch; blow; spoil by clumsy behavior
buoyant able to float; cheerful and optimistic; N. buoyancy; Ex. buoyancy of wood/water/American market
bureaucracy overregulated administrative system marked by red tape; ADJ. bureaucratic
burgeon grow rapidly; grow forth; send out buds; Ex. burgeoning computer industry; CF. bludgeon
burlesque give an imitation that ridicules; imitate mockingly
burnish make shiny by rubbing; polish
bust piece of sculpture showing a person's head, shoulders, and upper chest; V: break up; arrest; Ex. crimebuster
buttress support; prop up; N. stationary structure to support wall; Ex. flying buttress
buxom full-bosomed; plump; jolly
cabal small group of persons secretly united to promote their own interests
cache hiding place; V.
cacophonous discordant; inharmonious; N. cacophony: unpleasant mixture of loud sounds
cadaver corpse; dead human body
cadaverous like a corpse; pale
cadence rhythmic rise and fall (of words or sounds); beat; regular beat of sound; rhythm
cadet student at a military school
cajole persuade by praise or false promise; coax; wheedle
calamity disaster; misery
calculated deliberately planned; likely
caldron(cauldron) large kettle
caliber ability; quality; diameter of the inside of a round cylinder; Ex. work of very high caliber
calligraphy beautiful writing; excellent penmanship
callous hardened; unfeeling; without sympathy for the sufferings of others; unkind
callow youthful; immature; inexperienced
callus area of thick hard skin
calorific heat-producing; N. calorie
calumny malicious misrepresentation; slander
camaraderie good-fellowship; CF. comrade
cameo shell or jewel carved in relief; star's special appearance in a minor role in a film
camp group sharing a common cause or opinion
canard unfounded false rumor; exaggerated false report
candor frankness; open honesty; ADJ. candid
canine related to dogs; doglike
canker any ulcerous sore; ulcer; any evil; CF. cancer
canny shrewd in money matters; thrifty
cant insincere speech or expression of piety; jargon of thieves; special words used by a particular group of people
cantankerous ill-humored; irritable
cantata story set to music to be sung by a chorus (shorter than an oratorio)
canter slow gallop; V. CF. trot
canto division of a long poem
canvass determine or seek opinions, votes, etc.; go through (a region) to solicit votes or orders; conduct a survey; N.
capacious spacious
capacity mental or physical ability; role; position or duty; ability to accommodate; Ex. in my capacity as president
capillary having a very fine bore; resembling a hair; fine and slender; Ex. capillary attraction; N: very fine hairlike tube; CF. capillarity
capitulate surrender; give up all resistance
caprice whim; sudden change of mind without any real cause
capricious unpredictable; fickle
capsize (of a boat) turn over
caption title; chapter heading; text under illustration
captious faultfinding; too critical
carafe glass water bottle; decanter
carapace shell covering the back (of a turtle, tortoise, crab, etc.)
carat(karat) unit of weight for precious stones; measure of the purity of gold
carcinogenic causing cancer; N. carcinogen
cardinal chief; most important; N: priest; cardinal number: number that shows quantity rather thatn order
cardiologist doctor specializing in ailments of the heart
careen lurch; sway from side to side; move with irregular swinging movement; stagger
career rush wildly; go at full speed
carefree free from worries; having no problems
caricature distortion; burlesque
carillon a set of bells (often in a tower) capable of being played
carnage destruction of life; slaughter; killing of large numbers of people or animals
carnal fleshly; sensual; concerning the desires of the body
carnivorous meat-eating; N. carnivore; CF. herbivore
carousal drunken revel; V. carouse
carping petty criticism; fault-finding; fretful complaining; quibble
carrion rotting flesh of a dead body; CF. vulture
cartographer map-maker
cascade small waterfall
caste one of the hereditary classes in Hindu society; social stratification; prestige
castigation punishment; severe criticism or disapproval
castrate remove the sex organs (of a male animal or person)
casual happening by chance; irregular; occasional; informal; showing or feeling little interest; Ex. casual reader/labor/remark
casualty serious or fatal accident; person killed or wounded in an accident or battle
cataclysm deluge; upheaval; earthquake; violent and sudden event or change
catalyst agent which brings about a chemical change while it remains unaffected and unchanged; CF. catalysis
catapult slingshot; hurling machine; V: fire from catapult
cataract great waterfall; eye abnormality (causing a gradual loss of eyesight)
catastrophe calamity ; disaster
catcall shout of disapproval or displeasure (made at the theater or a sports match); boo; V.
catechism book for religious instruction in question-and-answer form; religious instruction by question and answer; V. catechize
categorical without exceptions; made without any doubt in mind; unqualified; absolute
cater provide food and drink (for); cater to: try to satisfy (desires of a bad kind)
catharsis purging or cleansing of any passage of the body; purging and weakening of strong emotions as a result of experiencing a dramatic work of art
cathartic purgative; medicine that causes the bowels to empty; ADJ.
catholic (of likings and interests) universal; general; broad; including many different parts; wide-ranging liberal; Ex. catholic opinions/tastes
caucus private meeting of a group of people in a political party to select officers or determine policy; CF. the Caucus club of Boston
caulk(calk) make watertight (by blocking up cracks as in a ship)
causal implying a cause-and-effect relationship; N. causality
caustic burning; corrosive; able to burn by chemical action; sarcastically biting; (of remarks) intended to hurt; bitter; harmful; OP. harmless
cauterize burn (a wound or snakebite, etc.) with hot iron or caustic substance to stop bleeding and prevent infection
cavalcade procession of riders or horse-drawn carriages; parade; CF. cavalry
cavalier casual and offhand; arrogant; N: knight
cavil quibble; make frivolous objections; find fault unnecessarily
cede yield (title or territory) to (esp. after losing a war); surrender formally; N. cession
celerity speed; rapidity
celestial heavenly
celibate abstaining from sexual intercourse; unmarried; N. celibacy
cemetery place for burying the dead
censor (in ancient Rome) overseer of morals (also taking the census); person who eliminates inappropriate matter; V.
censorious severely critical
censure blame; criticize; express strong disapproval; N: severe criticism; strong disapproval
centaur mythical figure, half man and half horse
centigrade denoting a widely used temperature scale (basically same as Celsius)
centrifugal radiating; departing from the center
centrifuge machine that separates substances by whirling them
centripetal tending toward the center
centurion Roman army officer (commanding a company of about 100 soldiers)
cerebral pertaining to the brain or intellect; intellectual rather than emotional; CF. cerebrum
cerebration thought; working of the brain
ceremonious marked by formality; extremely formal and polite; CF. ceremony: conventional social courtesy
certitude certainty
cessation stoppage
cession yielding to another; ceding
chafe warm by rubbing; make sore by rubbing; N.
chaff worthless products of an endeavor; husk(outer seed cover) separated from grain; Ex. separate the wheat from the chaff
chaffing bantering; joking
chagrin annoyance and disappointment; vexation (caused by humiliation or injured pride)
chalice goblet; consecrated cup
chameleon lizard that changes color in different situations
champion support militantly; fight for; N: person who fights for or supports strongly (a principle, movement, person, etc.)
championship position of champion; defense or support; competition held to determine a champion
chancellor legal official of high rank; CF. chancellery(chancellory): position of a chancellor
chant tune(melody) in which a number of words are sung on the same note; V: sing (a chant); utter (a slogan) in the manner of a chant
chaotic in utter disorder
chapel small church (in a prison, college, or hospital)
chaperon older person who accompanies and supervises a young unmarried woman
chaplain clergyman attached to a chapel
char make or become black by burning; reduce or be reduced to carbon or charcoal(black substance made by burning wood) by incomplete combustion
charisma divine gift; great popular charm or appeal; magnetism
charlatan quack; pretender to knowledge (esp. in medicine)
charm quality of pleasing; amulet; action or formula thought to have magical power; spell; V: attract; cast a spell on; bewitch
chary cautious; unwilling to take risks; sparing or restrained about giving; OP. bold
chase ornament a metal surface by indenting; follow rapidly to catch
chasm abyss; very deep crack
chassis framework and working parts of an automobile; framework to which components are attached
chaste morally pure; virginal; abstaining from illicit sexual acts; modest; simple (of a style of writing); not highly decorated; austere
chasten discipline; punish in order to correct; CF. castigate
chastise punish as by beating; criticize severely
chauvinist blindly devoted patriot; zealous adherent of a group, cause, or sex; ADJ. chauvinistic; CF. chauvinism; Nicolas Chauvin
check stop motion; curb or restrain
checkered(chequered) marked by great changes in fortune; with many changes of fortuene; CF. checked: having a pattern of squares
cherubic angelic; innocent-looking; N. cherub; CF. seraph: winged angel of the highest order
chicanery trickery; deception
chide scold; rebuke (someone who has done wrong)
chimerical fantastically improbable; highly unrealistic; N. chimera: unreal fancy; fire-breathing female creature
chip lose a small piece from the surface or edge; N: small piece broken off something; CF. French fry; Potato chip/crisp
chisel swindle or cheat; N: wedgelike tool for cutting
chivalrous courteous; faithful; brave; N. chivalry
choice delicate; of very fine quality
choir group of people who sing together (esp. during religious services); place for choir
choleric hot-tempered; bad-tempered; irritable; easily angered; CF. cholera
chore daily domestic task (such as cleaning, cooking, and shopping); unpleasant task
choreography art of representing dances in written symbols; arrangement of dances
chortle chuckle with delight; N.
chorus phrase repeated throughout a song or poem
chronic long established as a disease
chronicle report; record (in chronological order)
chuckle laugh quietly
churlish boorish; rude; N. churl: boor; yahoo
ciliated having minute hairs; CF. cilium; CF. cilia: eyelash
cipher nonentity; worthless person or thing; zero; secret code; V.
circlet small ring; band of gold, silver, jewel, etc. (worn on the head, arms, or neck as decoration)
circuit closed circular line around an area; circumference; regularly repeated journey from place to place
circuitous roundabout
circumlocution indirect or roundabout expression (by using an uncecessarily large number of words esp. when trying to avoid answering a difficult question directly)
circumscribe limit; confine; draw a line around
circumspect prudent; cautious; acting after careful thought
circumvent outwit; defeat by behaving more cleverly; outsmart; baffle; avoid; get around
cistern reservoir or water tank
citadel fortress
cite quote; commend; Ex. cited for bravery in an official record
civil having to do with citizens; not military or religious; courteous and polite; Ex. married in a civil ceremony; Ex. civil strife/disorder/law; N. civility; CF. civic
clairvoyant having foresight; fortuneteller; N. clairvoyance
clamber climb by crawling with difficulties; scramble
clamor loud continous noise; continuous demand or complaint made by a large number of people; V: make a clamor; express (a demand) continually and loudly; ADJ. clamorous
clandestine secret
clangor loud resounding noise; sound of repeated clanging
clap strike the palms of the hands together with a sudden explosive sound; come together suddenly with a sharp sound; put or send promptly; Ex. clap the thief in jail; N: clapping; loud or explosive sound; CF. applause
clapper striker (tongue) of a bell
clarion shrill, trumpetlike sound; kind of trumpet used in former times
clasp hold firmly within arms
claustrophobia fear of being locked in
clavicle collarbone
cleave split or sever; cling to; remain faithful to; N. cleavage; ADJ. cloven
cleft N: split
clemency disposition to be lenient in deciding punishments; mildness as of the weather; ADJ. clement
clich\'e phrase dulled in meaning by repetition; platitude; ADJ. clich\'ed
clientele body of customers
climactic relating to the highest point; N. climax; CF. climatic
clime climate
clip cut off with shears; fasten; N: something clipped off (as a short extract from film); clasp or fastener
clipper sailing vessel built for great speed
clique small exclusive group of people
cloister monastery or convent
clot half-solid lump formed from a liquid (or blood); V.
clout great influence (especially political or social); hard blow with fist
clown act stupidly; play the fool; N.
cloying distasteful (because excessive); excessively sweet or sentimental; V. cloy: become unpleasant through too much sweetness or excess
coagulate congeal; thicken; clot; N. coagulant
coalesce combine; fuse; N. coalescence
coalition partnership; league; union of separate political parties
coax persuade by flattery
coda concluding section of a musical or literary composition
coddle treat gently; indulge excessively; pamper; mollycoddle; baby; cook in water just below boiling point; Ex. coddled eggs
codicil supplement to the body of a will; later addition to a will
codify arrange (laws or rules) as a code; classify; N. code: system of words used instead of ordinary writing; collection of laws, rules, established social customs
coercion use of force to get someone to object; compelling; V. coerce
coeval living at the same time as; existing during the same period of time; contemporary; of the same age
cog tooth projecting from a wheel
cogent convincing
cogitate think over; ponder
cognate having a common origin; related linguistically; allied by blood; similar or akin in nature; Ex. cognate languages; N.
cognitive having to do with knowing or perceiving related to the mental processes; N. cognition: the mental process of knowing
cognizance knowledge; ADJ. cognizant; having knowledge; aware
cohabit live together
cohere stick together
cohesion tendency to keep together
cohorts group of people who share some common quality; armed band; a group of between 300 and 600 soldiers under one commander (in the ancient Rome)
coiffure hairstyle
coin make coins; invent or fabricate (a word or phrase); N. coinage: word or phrase recently invented
coincidence the chance occurrence, at the same time, of two or more seemingly connected events; V. coincide: happen at the same time; be in agreement; CF. coincident; CF. coincidental
colander utensil with perforated bottom used for straining
collaborate work together; cooperate treasonably with the enemy
collage work of art put together from fragments
collate examine and compare in order to verify authenticity; arrange in order (the sheets of a book before they are bound)
collateral security given for loan; ADJ: secondary; descended from the same person but through different sons or daughters
collation a light meal; collating
collected composed; calm; self-possessed
colloquial pertaining to conversational or common speech; informal; N. colloquialism: colloquial expression
colloquy informal discussion; conversation
collusion conspiring in a fraudulent scheme to cheat or deceive others; V. collude
colossal huge
colossus gigantic statue; person or thing of great size or importance
coma deep prolonged unconsciousness caused by disease, poison, or a severe blow
comatose in a coma; extremely sleepy
combustible easily burned; N. CF. combustion
comeback retort; quick clever reply; return to former status
comely attractive; agreeable; having a pleasing appearance
comestible something fit to be eaten
comeuppance deserts; well-deserved punishment or misfortune; rebuke
comity courtesy; civility; Ex. comity of nations
commandeer take (private property) for military use without needing permission or giving payment; draft for military purposes
commemorate honor the memory of; serve as a memorial to; Ex. commemorate the 100th anniversary/those who died in the war
commemorative remembering; honoring the memory of; Ex. commemorative stamp
commensurate equal in extent; of the same size
commiserate feel or express pity or sympathy for
commodious spacious and comfortable
commonplace ordinary; N: something ordinary or common; trite remark
commonwealth nation governed by the people; republic; people of a nation
communal held in common; public; of a group of people; of a commune
commune small (often rural) community whose members share work and income; V: exchange thoughts or feelings; Ex. commune with nature
compact agreement; contract; ADJ: tightly packed; firm; brief; concise; Ex. compact statement
compartment one of the parts into which an enclosed space is divided
compassion sympathy for the suffering of others; ADJ. compassionate
compatible harmonious; in harmony with; able to exist together
compelling overpowering; irresistible in effect; holding one's attention; that compels one to do something; Ex. a compelling adventure story; V. compel
compendium brief, comprehensive summary; ADJ. compendious
compensatory making up for; repaying
compilation listing of information in tabular or book form; compiling
compile assemble; gather; accumulate; make (a report or a book) from facts and information found in various places; Ex. compile a dictionary
complacency self-satisfaction; smugness; ADJ. complacent
complaisant trying to please; obliging; willing to please others
complement complete; consummate; make perfect; N.
complementary serving to complete something
compliance conformity in fulfilling requirements; readiness to yield; disposition to yield to others; V. comply
compliant readily acting in accordance with a rule, order, or the wishes or others; yielding; comforming to requirements
complicity participation; involvement (in a questionable act or a crime)
component element; ingredient
comport bear one's self; behave; Ex. comport oneself; N. comportment
compost mixture of decaying organic matter used as fertilizer; V: put or make compost
composure mental calmness
compound combine; produce by combining; increase; make worse by adding to or increasing; exacerbate; Ex. compound an error; ADJ: consisting of two or more parts; N: combination of two or more parts; area enclosed by a wall containing a group of buildings; Ex. fac
comprehend include; understand
comprehensive broad; including a lot or everything; thorough; inclusive
compress force into less space; squeeze; contract; put into fewer words; N: thick mass of cloth pressed to part of the body to stop bleeding or swelling, reduce fever, etc.
comprise include; consist of
compromise adjust or settle by making mutual concessions; endanger the interests or reputation of; put into danger, disrepute, or a dishonorable position; Ex. compromise one's principle; N.
compulsion compelling; strong desire that is difficult to control; irresistible impulse
compulsive resulting from compulsion
compulsory obligatory; that must be done
compunction remorse; strong uneasiness caused by guilt
compute reckon; calculate
concatenate link as in a chain
concave hollow; curved inwards; OP. convex
concede admit; acknowledge as being true (often reluctantly); yield; grant; Ex. concede a goal
conceit vanity or self-love; too high opinion of one's own value; extravagant metaphor (in poetry)
concentric having a common center
conception beginning; forming of an idea; fertilization; V. conceive: form an idea in the mind; devise; become pregnant; CF. inception
concerted mutually agreed on; done together by agreement; Ex. concerted effort; CF. in concert: working together
concession an act of yielding; conceding; something conceded; point, right, etc. given unwillingly; privilege of maintaining a business in a certain place; Ex. oil concessions in the North sea; CF. concessionaire
conciliatory reconciling; soothing; V. conciliate: reconcile; soothe; win the friendly feelings (by removing anger)
concise brief and compact
conclave private secret meeting
conclusive decisive; ending all debate
concoct prepare by mixing or combining; make up in concert; devise (something false) so as to deceive; Ex. concoct an elaborate excuse for being late; N. concoction
concomitant that which accompanies; Ex. Deafnes is a frequent concommitant of old age; ADJ: existing or happening together with something else
concord harmony; accord
concordat formal agreement
concur agree; coincide; happen at the same time
concurrent happening at the same time; in agreement
condescend (derog.) bestow courtesies with a superior air; descend to the level of one considered inferior
condign adequate; (of punishment) severe and well deserved
condiments seasonings; spices
condole express condolences; N. condolence: sympathy for someone who has experienced great sorrow
condone overlook; forgive; give tacit approval; excuse
conducive helpful; contributive; V. conduce; Ex. conduce to/towards
conduit aqueduct; passageway for fluids
confidant(confidante) trusted friend (to whom one tells one's secret)
confide tell in confidence (to a person one trusts); be confident about
confidence self-assurance; calm unworried feeling based on a strong belief in one's abilities; strong belief in the ability of a person or plan; trust or faith in a person or thing; something confided; secret; Ex. confidence in your ability; Ex. I'm telling you thi
confidential spoken or written in secret; trusted with private matters; Ex. confidential secretary
confine shut in an enclosed space; restrict; keep within limits; N. confinement
confiscate seize; take possession of (private property) by official order (usu. as a punishment); commandeer
conflagration great fire
confluence flowing together; the place where two rivers flow together; crowd; gathering together
conformist person who uncritically conforms to the customs of a group; OP. nonconformist: one who does not conform to accepted beliefs of norms
conformity harmony; agreement with established rules or customs; similarity; Ex. behave in conformity with; V. conform: be similar; act in agreement; comply; Ex. conform to the rule; CF. conformance
confound confuse; puzzle
congeal freeze; coagulate
congenial pleasant; friendly; in agreement with one's tastes and nature; Ex. congenial weather
congenital existing at birth
conglomerate corporation made up of several different companies in diversified fields; mass of various material gathered together; rock consisting of small stones held together by clay; V.
conglomeration mass of material sticking together
congruence correspondence of parts; harmonious relationship; CF. congruity
congruent in agreement; harmonious; corresponding; coinciding exactly; CF. congruous
conifer pine tree (usu. evergreen); cone-bearing tree; ADJ. coniferous; CF. deciduous; CF. evergreen
conjecture surmise; guess; V.
conjugal pertaining to marriage
conjure cause to appear by magic; summon (a devil or a spirit) by magical power; practice magic (esp. by very quick movement of the hands); evoke; conjure up: bring into the mind; Ex. The magician conjured a rabbit out of his hat.
connivance pretense of ignorance of something wrong; assistance; permission to offend; V. connive: feign ignorance (of a wrong); cooperate secretly in an illegal action; conspire
connoisseur person competent to act as a judge of art, etc. (whose judgments are respected); a lover of an art
connotation suggested or implied meaning of an expression; V. connote
connubial pertaining to marriage or the matrimonial state
consanguineous(consanguine) having a common ancestor
consanguinity kinship; relationship by birth
conscientious scrupulous; through and careful; Ex. conscientious worker
conscript draftee; person forced into military service; V.
consecrate dedicate; sanctify; declare as sacred; Ex. consecrate one's life to helping the poor
consensus general agreement; opinion reached by a group
consequential self-important; significant; consequent; following as a result; Ex. consequential air; CF. subsequent
conservatory(conservatoire) school of the fine arts (especially music or drama); glass-enclosed area; CF. conservancy
consign send to a person or place for sale; deliver officially; entrust; put into the care of another; set apart (for a special purpose); N. consignment; CF. consignor, consignee
consistency absence of contradictions; uniformity; degree of thickness or firmness; Ex. consistency of thick cream; CF. viscous
console lessen sadness or disappointment; give comfort; allay the sorrow of; N. consolation
consolidation unification; process of becoming firmer or stronger; V. consolidate: merge; strengthen
consonance harmony; agreement
consonant harmonious; in agreement; N.
consort associate with; keep company; N: husband or wife (or a ruler)
conspiracy treacherous plot; secret plan against the law (by two or more people)
conspire take part in a conspiracy; (of events) work together; combine; Ex. Events conspired to produce great difficulties.
consternation great shock; dismay
constituency voters represented by an elected official; district so represented; group of supporters (or constituents)
constituent supporter; voter; member of a constituency; component
constitution constituting; system of laws; composition of something; physical makeup or structure of a person; Ex. men with strong constitutions
constraint restraint; compulsion; repression of feelings; reticence; V. constrain: hold back; restrain; compel; oblige; confine forcibly; imprison
construe explain; interpret; Ex. construe her silence as meaning that she agreed; CF. misconstrue
consummate complete; V.
contagion infection (by contact); ADJ. contagious; CF. infectious: that can be passed by infection in the air
contaminate pollute
contempt scorn; disdain; ADJ. contemptuous; CF. contemptible
contend struggle; compete; assert earnestly; state strongly
contention assertion; claim; thesis; struggling; competition
contentious quarrelsome; controversial; likely to cause arguments
contest dispute; argue about the rightness of; compete for; try to win; Ex. contest the election results; Ex. contest a seat in Parliament; N.
context writings preceding and following the passage quoted; circumstance in which an event occurs
contiguous adjacent to; touching upon
continence self-restraint; sexual chastity; sexual abstinence; voluntary control over bladder and bowel functions; ADJ. continent
contingent dependent on something uncertain or in the future; conditional; happening by chance; accidental; N: a group of soldiers, ships to a larger force; CF. contingency: future event that may or may not occur; possibility; Ex. prepare for every contingency
contortions twistings; distortions; V. contort: twist violently out of shape; CF. contortionist
contraband illegal trade; smuggling; smuggled goods; ADJ.
contravene contradict; oppose; violate (a rule, law, or custom); N. contravention
contrite penitent; repentant; N. contrition
contrivance something contrived; machine or apparatus; clever deceitful plan; scheme
contrive invent or fabricate in a clever way (by improvisation); manage; Ex. contrive to attract his attention
contrived unnatural and forced; artificial; not spontaneous; Ex. The ending was rather contrived.
controvert oppose with arguments; attempt to refute; contradict; ADJ. controversial; N. controversy
contumacious stubborn and disobedient; resisting authority (esp. disobedient to an order made by a court)
contusion bruise
conundrum riddle; difficult problem
convene come together; assemble; call to meet; Ex. convene the council
convention social or moral custom; established practice; formal meeting; international agreement
conventional ordinary; typical; not nuclear; Ex. conventional weapons
converge approach; tend to meet; come together
conversant familiar with; having knowledge of
converse opposite; ADJ.
convert one who has adopted a different religion or opinion; V: change into another form; (persuade to) adopt a particular religion or belief
convex curving outward
conveyance vehicle; transfer; act of conveying; Ex. public conveyance
conviction judgment that someone is guilty of a crime; strongly held belief
convivial pleasantly merry; festive; joyous; gay; characterized by joviality; jovial
convoke call together; Ex. convoke Parliament; N. convocation
convoluted coiled around; twisted; involved; complicated; intricate; complex; N. convolution: twist; one of the convex folds of the surface of the brain
convulsion violent uncontrollable shaking movement (caused by illness); V. convulse; ADJ. convulsive
copious plentiful
coquette flirt; flirtatious woman; woman who tries to attract the admiration of men without sincere feelings; V.
cordial warmly friendly; gracious; heartfelt; Ex. cordial welcome
cordon extended line of men or fortifications to prevent access or egress; V.
cornice projecting molding on building (usually above columns or pillars);
cornucopia horn (or horn-shaped container) overflowing with fruit and grain; symbol of abundance; horn of plenty
corollary natural consequence (which naturally follows from something else)
coroner public official who investigates any death thought to be of other than natural causes
corporeal bodily (rather than spiritual); of a bodily form; material; tangible
corpulent very fat; N. corpulence
corpus collection (of writings or information); Ex. the corpus of Shakespear's works; Cf. corpse
corpuscle red or white cell in the blood
correlate either of the correlated things; V.
correlation mutual relationship
corroborate confirm; support; strengthen
corrode destroy or wear away gradually by chemical action (over a long period)
corrosive eating away by chemicals or disease; (of language) fierce
corrugated wrinkled; ridged
cosmic pertaining to the universe; vast
coterie group that meets socially; select circle; close group of people with shared interests
countenance approve; support; tolerate; Ex. countenance his rude behavior; N: face; appearance
countermand cancel; revoke (an order)
counterpart thing that completes another; things very much alike; thing that has the same purpose in a different system
coup highly successful action or sudden attack; coup(s) d'\'etat; CF. coup de gr\^ace: deathblow or shot which kills
couple join; unite; OP. uncouple
courier messenger
court attempt to gain; seek; woo; risk; behave so as to invite; attempt to gain the favor of by attention; Ex. court disaster
covenant binding agreement between two groups or people; compact; V: enter into a covenant; promise
covert secret; hidden; implied; OP. overt
covetous avaricious; desirous of (someone else's possessions); V. covet: desire eagerly (someone else's possessions)
cow terrorize; intimidate
cower shrink quivering as from fear; cringe
coy shy (flirtatiously); showing a (pretended) lack of self-confidence; modest; coquettish; CF. job offer
cozen cheat; hoodwink; swindle
crabbed sour; bad-tempered; peevish; difficult to read as handwriting
craft skill (esp. with one's hands); skill in deceiving people; guile; ADJ. crafty: cleverly deceitful; cunning
crass very unrefined; grossly insensible; crude and undiscriminating; Ex. crass behavior
crave desire; want intensely
craven cowardly
credence belief
credential evidence concerning one's authority; written proof of a person's position; Ex. The new ambassador presented his credentials to the court.
credo creed
credulity belief on slight evidence; gullibility; naivet\'e; ADJ. credulous
creed system of religious or ethical belief
creep move with body close to the ground; move stealthily or slowly; N.
cremate incinerate (a corpse); N. crematory, crematorium
crescendo increase in the volume or intensity as in a musical passage; climax; CF. crescent
crest top (as of a hill or wave); showy feathers on the head of a bird
crestfallen dejected; dispirited
crevice crack; fissure
cringe shrink back as if in fear; cower
crinkle wrinkle
criteria standards used in judging; CF. criterion
crochet make (a piece of needlework) by looping thread with a hooked needle; N. CF. crotchet
crone hag; ugly old woman
cross bad-tempered; showing ill-humor; angry
crossbreed hybridize; N: hybrid; CF. interbreed; CF. inbreed
crotchety (of someone old) eccentric; odd; whimsical; bad-tempered; N. crotchet: odd or whimsical notion
crust hard outer covering (as of earth or snow)
crux essential or main point; Ex. the crux of the problem; ADJ. crucial: of deciding importance
crypt secret recess or vault usually used for burial; underground room (under a church)
cryptic mysterious; hidden; secret
cubicle small chamber used for sleeping or work
cue word or signal (as in a play to prompt another actor's speech or entrance); reminder or hint; V: give a cue to
cuisine style of cooking; Ex. French cuisine
culinary relating to cooking or kitchen
cull pick out from others (to kill the weakest members); reject; select; collect (information); N.
culmination highest point; climax; V. culminate in: reach the highest point in; end in; Ex. a series of minor clashes culminating in war
culpable deserving blame; blameworthy
culprit one guilty of a crime
culvert artificial channel for water; drain crossing under a road
cumbersome heavy and awkward to carry or wear; burdensome; Ex. cumbersome parcel/uniform
cumulative growing by addition; accumulative
cunning clever in deceiving; sly; N: cleverness in deceiving; deceit
cupidity greed (for wealth); CF. cupid; CF. Cupid
curator superintendent; manager (in charge of a museum or a library)
curb chain or strap used with a bit to restrain a horse; something that checks; V: check; restrain
curfew regulation requiring all people to leave the streets at stated times; signal (as a bell) announcing the hour of a curfew
curmudgeon churlish, miserly individual; bad-tempered old person
cursive (of writing) flowing; running; having the successive letters joined
cursory casual; hastily done with little attention to detail
curtail shorten; reduce
cynical skeptical or distrustful of human motives; N. cynicism; CF. cynic: person who believes all people are motivated by selfishness
cynosure object of general attention; person or thing that is a center of attention; CF. Ursa Minor
debacle sudden disastrous downfall or defeat; complete disaster
debris rubble; wreckage; scattered remains of something broken or destroyed
decollete (of a dress) having a low-cut neckline; CF. d\'ecolletage: low neckline (on a dress)
denouement final outcome; final development of the plot of a play or other literary work; the end of a story when everything is explained
dabble work at in a nonserious fashion; splash around; move noisily in a liquid
dainty delicate; delicately beautiful; fastidious; not easy to please; Ex. dainty movement/dress
dais raised platform for speakers or other important people
dally trifle with; toy with; treat without the necessary seriousness; procrastinate; waste time
damn condemn; criticize severely; condemn to everlasting punishment; doom; bring to ruin; N. damnation
dank damp; unpleasantly wet
dapper neat and trim (in appearance); (of small men) neat in appearance and quick in movements; neat; spry
dappled spotted
dart move or throw suddenly and quickly
daub smear (as with paint); cover with something sticky; Ex. daub one's clothes with mud/paint; N: small bit of sticky substance; Ex. a daub of paint
daunt intimidate; frighten; discourage; dishearten
dauntless bold; fearless
dawdle loiter; hang around; waste time doing nothing
daze stun as with a blow or shock; bemuse; benumb; N.
dazzle make blind with a sudden intense light; amaze; fill with wonder
deadlock standstill resulting from the opposition of two unrelenting forces; stalemate
deadpan wooden; impassive; with no show of feeling; with an expressionless face
dearth scarcity
debar bar; forbid; exclude; Ex. debarred from jury services
debase degrade; reduce in quality or value; degenerate; lower in esteem; disgrace; N. debasement
debauch corrupt morally; seduce from virtue; N. debauchery: wild behavior (with sex and alcohol)
debilitate weaken (esp. through heat, hunger, illness); enfeeble
debonair (of men) friendly, charming, and fashionably dressed; aiming to please; CF. of good disposition
debunk expose as false, exaggerated, worthless, etc.; ridicule
debut d\'ebut; first public appearance; formal presentation of a young woman to society
debutante young woman making formal entrance into society
decadence decay; fall to a lower level (of morality, civilization, or art); ADJ. decadent
decant pour off gently (wine or liquid)
decapitate behead
decelerate slow down
deciduous falling off at a specific season or stage of growth as of leaves; Ex. deciduous tree/teeth
decimate kill (usually one out of ten or every tenth man); destroy or kill a large part of
decipher decode; CF. indecipherable
declivity downward slope
decomposition decay; V. decompose: decay; break and separate into simple parts
decorous proper (in behavior, conduct, or appearance)
decorum propriety; orderliness and good taste in manners; appropriateness of behavior or conduct
decoy lure or bait; V.
decree authoritative order; edict; judgment of a court of law; V: order or judge by decree
decrepit weak and in bad condition from old age or hard use; Ex. decrepit old chair/man
decrepitude state of collapse or weakness caused by illness or old age
decry express strong disapproval of; condemn openly (something dangerous to the public); disparage; Ex. decry the violence of modern films
deducible derived by reasoning; V. deduce: infer; derive by reasoning
deface mar; disfigure
defalcate embezzle
defame harm someone's reputation; malign; speak evil of; slander; N. defamation; ADJ. defamatory
default failure to act; failure to perform a task or be present; V.
defeatist resigned to defeat or failure; accepting defeat or failure as a natural outcome; N. CF. defeatism
defect shortcoming; V: desert (in order to join the opposite one)
defection desertion
defer give in respectfully; submit; delay till later; exempt temporarily; N. deferment; CF. show respect, comply with, courteous
deference courteous regard for another's wish; courteous yielding to another's wish or opinion (showing respect); ADJ. deferential; OP. effrontery
defiance refusal to yield; resistance; V. defy; ADJ. defiant
defile pollute; make filthy or dirty; corrupt morally; profane; desecrate; N: narrow passage or gorge through mountains
definitive most reliable; authorative and complete; that cannot be improved; conclusive; decisive; definite; Ex. definitive decision by the supreme court
deflect turn aside; turn away from a straight course
defoliate destroy leaves; deprive of leaves (by the use of chemicals); N. defoliant
defray provide for the payment of; undertake the payment of; pay
defrock strip a priest or minister of church authority; unfrock
deft neat; skillful
defunct dead; no longer in use or existence
degenerate become worse in quality; deteriorate; ADJ: having become worse; Ex. a degenerate species; N: depraved or corrupt person
degradation humiliation; debasement; degeneration; V. degrade: debase; disgrace; degenerate; reduce (something) in worth; demote (someone); reduce in rank
dehydrate remove water from; dry out
deify turn into a god; make a god of; idolize; Ex. Kings were deified; CF. deity
deign condescend; stoop
delete erase; strike out
deleterious harmful
deliberate consider; ponder; ADJ: done on purpose; slow
delineate portray; depict; sketch; describe; N. delineation
delirium mental disorder marked by confusion; uncontrolled excitement; ADJ. delirious
delta flat plain of mud or sand between branches of a river
delude deceive
deluge flood; rush; V.
delusion false belief; hallucination; deluding; Ex. delusions of grandeur; Ex. under the delusion that
delusive deceptive; likely to delude; misleading; raising vain hopes; Ex. delusive promises
delve dig; search deeply; investigate
demagogue person who appeals to people's prejudice; false leader of people; CF. demagoguery
demean disgrace; humiliate; debase in dignity; behave
demeanor behavior; bearing
demented insane
demerit fault; bad quality
demise death
demographic related to population balance; N. demography: statistical study of human population
demolition destruction; V. demolish
demoniac(demoniacal) fiendish; cruel; N. demon: evil supernatural being; devil
demotic of or pertaining to the people
demur object (because of doubts, scruples); raise an objection (showing qualms); hesitate; Ex. demur at the idea of working on Sunday
demure (of a woman or child) grave; quiet and serious; coy; pretending to be demure
denigrate blacken; defame
denizen (animal, person, or plant) inhabitant or resident of a particular place; regular visitor
denomination religious group; unit in a system; name or designation; CF. denominator: common trait or characteristic
denotation meaning; distinguishing by name; V. denote: indicate; refer to directly; mean; CF. connotation
denounce condemn; criticize; N. denunciation
depict portray
deplete reduce; exhaust
deplore regret; express sorrow and severe disapproval for something bad; Ex. deplore their violent behavior; ADJ. deplorable: very bad; deserving severe disapproval; Ex. deplorable living condition
deploy spread out (troops) in an extended though shallow battle line; distribute (persons or forces) systematically or strategically
deport send out of the country; behave; N. deportation, deportment
depose dethrone; remove from office; give a deposition; testify
deposition testimony under oath; deposing; dethroning
depravity extreme corruption; wickedness; V. deprave
deprecate express disapproval of; deplore; protest against; belittle; ADJ. deprecatory
depreciate lessen in value; belittle; represent as of little value
depredation plundering; destruction
deputize work or appoint as a deputy; N. deputy: person who has the power to take charge when the leading person is away
deranged insane
derelict negligent; (of someone) neglectful of duty; (of something) deserted by an owner; abandoned; N: abandoned property; homeless or vagrant person
dereliction neglect of duty; abandonment
deride ridicule; treat with contempt; make fun of; OP. respect
derision ridicule; ADJ. derisive; CF. derisory
derivation deriving; origin or source of something; Ex. the derivation of the word
derivative unoriginal; obtained from another source; Ex. derivative prose style; N.
dermatologist one who studies the skin and its diseases
derogatory expressing a low opinion; disparaging; V. derogate: detract; disparage
descry catch sight of (something distant)
desecrate profane; violate the sanctity of
deserts what someone deserves
desiccate dry up
desolate make desolate; forsake; abandon and desert
desperado reckless, desperate outlaw
desperate having lost all hope; despairing; reckless and violent because of loss of hope or despair; undertaken as a last resort
despise look on with scorn; regard as worthless or distasteful; ADJ. despicable: contemptible
despoil plunder; sack; Ex. despoil the village
despondent without hope and courage; depressed; gloomy; N. despondency: loss of hope with gloom; dejection
despot tyrant; harsh, authoritarian ruler; CF. despotism
destitute extremely poor; lacking means of subsistence; utterly lacking; devoid; Ex. destitute of any experience
desultory aimless; haphazard; digressing at random
detached emotionally removed; free from emotional involvement; calm and objective; physically separate; N. detachment; CF. attachment
detain keep waiting; prevent from leaving or going; N. detention
determinate having a fixed order of procedure; precisely defined; invariable; fixed; conclusive; final
determination resolve; firmness of purpose; measurement or calculation; decision
deterrent something that discourages or deters
detonation explosion
detraction slandering; aspersion; detracting; CF. detractor
detrimental harmful; damaging; N. detriment
deviate turn away from (a principle, norm); move away from an accepted standard; swerve; depart; diverge; N. deviation; Ex. deviation of the path of light by a prism
devious roundabout; erratic; deviating from the straight course; not straightforward; not completely honest; Ex. devious route
devise think up; invent; plan; bequeath; N: bequest
devoid empty; lacking
devolve deputize; pass or be passed to others (power, work, or property); Ex. devolve on/upon/to
devotee enthusiastic follower; enthusiast; Ex. devotee of Bach
devout pious; deeply religious; sincere; earnest; Ex. my devout hope
dexterous skillful; skill in using hands or mind; N. dexterity
diabolical diabolic; devilish; fiendish
diadem crown
dialectical relating to the art of debate; mutual or reciprocal; Ex. dialectical situation; N. dialectic: art of arriving at the truth by the exchange of logical arguments
diaphanous sheer; transparent
diatribe bitter scolding or denunciation; invective; abuse
dichotomy division into two opposite parts; split; branching into two parts (especially contradictory ones)
dictum authoritative and weighty statement (made by a judge in court); saying; maxim; CF. obiter dictum: incidental, nonbinding remark (something said in passing)
didactic (of speech or writing) intended to teach a moral lesson; teaching; instructional; N. didacticism
die metal block used for shaping metal or plastic; device for stamping or impressing; mold; CF. dice
diffidence shyness; lack of self-confidence; timidity; ADJ. diffident
diffuse wordy; verbose; rambling; spread out (like a gas); V: spread out in all directions; disperse; N. diffusion; CF. suffuse
dignitary person of high rank or position
digression wandering away from the subject; V. digress
dilapidated falling to pieces; in a bad condition; ruined because of neglect; Ex. dilapidated old car/castle; N. dilapidation
dilate expand; dilate on/upon: speak or write at length on (a subject)
dilatory delaying; tending to delay
dilemma situation that requires a choice between equally unfavorable options; problem; choice of two unsatisfactory alternatives
dilettante aimless follower of an art or a field of knowledge (not taking it seriously); amateur; dabbler; CF. delight
diligence steadiness of effort; persistent hard work
dilute make (a liquid) less concentrated; reduce in strength; Ex. dilute the influence of the president
diminution lessening; reduction in size; V. diminish
din continued loud noise; V: make a din; instill by wearying repetition
dinghy small boat (often ship's boat)
dingy (of things and place) dirty and dull; Ex. dingy street/curtain
dint means; effort; Ex. by dint of hard work
diorama life-size, three-dimensional scene from nature or history; three-dimensional scene with modeled figures against a painted background
dire warning of disaster; disastrous; (of needs and dangers) very great; urgent; Ex. dire prediction/need of food
dirge funeral song; slow mournful piece of music (sung over a dead person)
disabuse correct a false impression; undeceive; free from a wrong belief
disaffected disloyal; lacking loyality; V. disaffect: cause to lose affection or loyalty
disapprobation disapproval; condemnation
disarray state of disorder; a disorderly or untidy state; Ex. with her clothes in disarray
disavowal denial; disclaiming; repudiating; disowning; V. disavow; CF. disclaim
disband dissolve; disperse; (of a group) break up and separate; Ex. The club has disbanded.
disbar make (a lawyer) leave the bar or the legal profession
disburse pay out (as from a fund); N. disbursement; CF. purse
discernible distinguishable; perceivable; Ex. discernible improvement
discerning mentally quick and observant; having insight; perceptive; able to make good judgments; V. discern: perceive
disclaim disown; renounce claim to; deny; CF. disclaimer
disclose reveal; N. disclosure
discombobulated discomposed; confused
discomfit frustrate; put to rout; defeat; disconcert; embarrass; perturb
discompose disturb the composure of; confuse
disconcert confuse; upset; embarrass; perturb
disconsolate hopelessly sad (at the loss of something)
discord conflict; lack of harmony; dissonance (when musical notes are played)
discordant not harmonious; conflicting
discount disregard; regard (a story or news) as unimportant; deduct from a cost
discourse serious speech, writing, or conversation; formal discussion (either written or spoken); conversation; V.
discredit defame; disgrace; destroy confidence in; disbelieve; N. CF. discreditable: causing discredit; shameful
discrepancy lack of consistency or agreement as between facts; difference; Ex. discrepancy between two descriptions
discrete separate; unconnected
discretion prudence; ability to adjust actions to circumstances; freedom of action or judgment; ADJ. discreet; CF. discretionary
discriminate distinguish; make distinctions on the basis of preference
discriminating able to see differences; discerning; prejudiced; N. discrimination
discursive (of a person or writing) digressing; rambling (without any clear plan)
disdain treat with scorn or contempt
disembark debark; go ashore (from a ship); unload cargo from a ship; CF. embark
disenfranchise disfranchise; deprive of a civil right; OP. enfranchise
disengage uncouple; separate; disconnect; stop fighting; OP. engage
disfigure mar the appearance of; spoil
disgorge surrender something (stolen); eject; vomit; OP. gorge
disgruntle make discontented
dishearten discourage
disheveled untidy (of hair or clothing); V. dishevel
dishonor disgrace; N. ADJ. dishonorable
disinclination unwillingness
disingenuous not naive; not candid; sophisticated; worldly wise; OP. ingenuous
disinter dig up; unearth; OP. inter
disinterested unprejudiced; free from bias and self-interest; objective
disjointed disconnected; lacking coherence; V. disjoint: disconnect; disjoin
disjunction act or state of separation; disunity; CF. disjunctive: expressing a choice between two ideas; CF. conjunction; CF. conjunctive
dislodge remove (forcibly); force out of a position; Ex. dislodge the food caught in his throat; CF. lodge
dismantle take apart; disassemble
dismember cut into small parts; cut (a body) apart limb from limb
dismiss eliminate from consideration; no longer consider; put out of court without further hearing; reject; discharge from employment; direct to leave; ADJ. dismissive; N. dismissal
disparage belittle
disparate basically different; impossible to compare; unrelated
disparity difference; condition of inequality; OP. parity
dispassionate calm; impartial; not influenced by personal feelings
dispatch speediness; prompt execution; message sent with all due speed; V: send to a specified destination; finish promptly; kill
dispel scatter; drive away; cause to vanish
dispense distribute; prepare and give out (medicines); N. dispensation: dispensing; religious system; official exemption from an obligation or a rule
disperse scatter; Ex. disperse the cloud/crowd
dispirited lacking in spirit
disport amuse; Ex. disport oneself; CF. divert
disproportion lack of proportion (between the parts); ADJ. disproportionate
disputatious argumentative; fond of argument
disquietude uneasiness; anxiety; V. disquiet: make anxious
disquisition formal systematic inquiry; explanation of the results of a formal inquiry; long formal speech or written report
dissection analysis; cutting apart in order to examine
dissemble disguise; hide the real nature of; pretend
disseminate distribute; spread; scatter (like seeds)
dissension disagreement of opinions causing strife within a group
dissent disagree
dissertation formal essay; treatise
dissident dissenting (with an opinion, a group, or a government); rebellious; N.
dissimulate pretend; conceal by feigning; dissemble
dissipate squander; waste foolishly; scatter
dissolution disintegration; reduction to a liquid form; looseness in morals; sensual indulgence; debauchery; ADJ. dissolute: lacking in moral restraint; leading an immoral life
dissonance discord
dissuade persuade not to do; discourage; N. dissuasion
distant reserved or aloof; cold in manner; Ex. distant greeting; ADV. distantly
distend expand; swell out
distill refine (a liquid by evaporating and subsequent condensation); concentrate; separate the most important parts from; Ex. distill fresh water from sea water; CF. brew
distinct clearly different; clearly noticed
distinction honor; excellence; difference; contrast; discrimination; Ex. graduated with distinction; Ex. a writer of real distinction
distinctive clearly different from others of the same kind
distort twist out of shape; give a false account of; misrepresent; N. distortion
distract take (one's attention) off something; upset emotionally; make anxious; ADJ. distracted
distrait absentminded; distracted
distraught upset; distracted by anxiety; very anxious and troubled almost to the point of madness; Ex. distraught with grief/worry
diurnal daily; occurring during the daytime
diva operatic singer; prima donna
diverge vary; go in different directions from the same point; ADJ. divergent: differing; deviating
diverse differing in some characteristics (from each other); various; N. diversity: | variety; dissimilitude; lack of resemblance
diversion act of turning aside; pastime; V. divert: turn aside from a course; distract; amuse
divest strip (as of clothes); deprive (as of rights); dispossess; N. divestiture(divestment)
divine perceive intuitively (by or as if by magic); foresee the future; foretell; dowse; ADJ. N. divination
divulge reveal
docile obedient; easily managed; submissive
docket program as for trial; book where such entries are made; list of things to be done; agenda; label fixed to a package listing contents or directions; V: describe in a docket
doctrinaire unable to compromise about points of doctrine; dogmatic; unyielding; marked by inflexible attachment to a doctrine without regard to its practical difficulties
doctrine teachings in general; particular principle (religious, legal, etc.) taught; dogma; tenet; ADJ. doctrinal
document provide written evidence (for a claim); record with documents; N.
doddering shaky; infirm from old age; V. dodder
doff take off; OP. don
dogged determined; stubborn; stubbornly persevering; tenacious; Ex. Inspector Javert's dogged pursuit of Jean Valjean
doggerel poor verse
dogmatic opinionated; holding stubbornly to one's opinion; arbitrary; doctrinal
doldrums blues; listlessness(lack of spirit or energy); slack(inactive) period; period of stagnation; ocean area near the equator where ships cannot move because there is no wind; Ex. in the doldrums
dolorous sorrowful; N. dolor
dolt slow-thinking stupid person; CF. dull
domicile home; V. ADJ. domiciled: having one's domicile; Ex. He is domiciled in Britain.
dominant exercising the most influence; high and easily seen; stronger than the other part of a system; not recessive
dominate control; rule; enjoy a commanding position in; overlook from a height; ³»·Á´Ùº¸´Ù
domineer rule over tyrannically
don put on; OP. doff
doom condemnation to a severe penalty; ruin; fate (esp. a tragic or ruinous one); V.
dormant sleeping; temporarily inactive; lethargic; latent
dormer window projecting upright from roof; CF. sleeping room
dorsal relating to the back of an animal; Ex. dorsal fin
dossier file of documents on a subject or person; file; CF. bundle of papers labeled on the back
dotage senility; feeblemindedness of old age; Ex. In one's dotage
dote be excessively fond of; show signs of mental decline
dour sullen; gloomy; stubborn
douse plunge into water or liquid; dip; immerse; drench; wet throughly; extinguish; throw water over; dowse
dowdy untidy (of a woman or clothes); slovenly; dressed in an unattractive way; shabby; CF. unattractive woman
downcast disheartened; dejected; sad; directed downward
dowry money or property brought by a bride to her husband at marriage
dowse use a divining rod to search for underground water or minerals
doze sleep lightly; nap
drab dull; lacking color; cheerless ; Ex. drab coat/life
draconian extremely severe; Ex. draconian punishment; CF. Draco: Athenian politician
draft first rough form; conscription; draught; V: make a draft of; conscript
drama prose or verse composition to be performed by actors; play; exciting and unusual situation
drastic strong; violent and severe; Ex. drastic changes/measures
draught current of air (through a room or to a fire); act of pulling roads; act of swallowing liquid or amount of liquid swallowed at a time
draw choosing of a lot or card
dregs sediment in a liquid; lees; worthless residue
dribble flow or fall in drops; let saliva flow out slowly from the mouth; move a ball; N.
drip fall or let fall in drops; shed drops; N: action or sound of falling in drops; liquid that falls in drops
drivel nonsense; foolishness; V: talk nonsense
droll queer and amusing
drone talk dully; buzz or murmur like a bee; N.
droop bend or hang downward; become weakened; Ex. His shoulders drooped with tiredness; N.
dross waste matter; worthless impurities
drudge do drudgery; N: person who drudges
drudgery hard unpleasant work; menial work
dubious questionable; (of something) causing doubt; (of someone) filled with doubt; N. dubiety
ductile malleable; pliable; (of metals) easily pulled into shape; flexible; (of someone) easily influenced or controlled
dulcet sweet sounding; pleasing to the ear; melodious
dull (of colors or surfaces) not bright; cloudy; overcast; boring; (of edge or sound) not sharp; not rapid; sluggish; slow in thinking and understanding; stupid; V.
dumbfound(dumfound) astonish (making dumb); ADJ. dumbfounded, dumfounded, dumbstruck
dummy imitation of a real object used as a substitute; effigy
dupe someone easily fooled or deceived; V: deceive
duplicity double-dealing; hypocrisy; being dishonest and deceitful; ADJ. duplicitous
duration length of time something lasts
duress forcible restraint, especially unlawfully; coercion by threat; illegal coercion; Ex. a promise made under duress
dutiful(duteous) (of people or their behavior) respectful; obedient (filled with a sense of duty)
dwindle shrink; reduce gradually
dynamic energetic; vigorously active
dynamo generator for producing electricity; energetic person
dys- abnormal; impaired
dysentery inflammatory disorder of the lower intestinal tract
dyslexia word blindness; learning disorder marked by impairment of the ability to read
dyspeptic suffering from indigestion; N. dyspepsia: indigestion; difficulty in digesting food
earmark set aside (money or time) for a particular purpose
earn gain for the performance of service or labor; gain (something that one deserves); deserve
earthly of this earth; terrestrial; worldly; not divine; possible; Ex. no earthly reason
earthy unrefined; coarse; of earth; Ex. earthy remarks; OP. ethereal
ebb (of the tide) recede; lessen; diminish; N. OP. flow: rise of tide
ebullient showing excitement; overflowing with enthusiasm; boiling; N. ebullience; N. ebullition: state of boiling
eccentric irregular; odd; unconventional; whimsical; bizarre; not concentric
eccentricity oddity; idiosyncrasy
ecclesiastic ecclesiastical; pertaining to the church; N: minister; priest; cleric; clergyman
eclectic selective; composed of elements drawn from disparate sources; selecting individual elements from a variety of sources; N. eclecticism
eclipse darken; extinguish; outshine; surpass; cause an eclipse
ecliptic path of the sun and the planets
ecologist person concerned with the interrelationship between living organisms and their environment; person concerned with the detrimental effects of human civilization on the environment; CF. ecology
economy efficiency or conciseness in using something; thrifty management of resources
ecosystem ecological community together with its environment
ecstasy rapture; very strong feeling of joy and happiness; any overpowering emotion; ADJ. ecstatic: causing or experiencing ecstasy
eddy swirling current of water, air, etc.; V.
edict decree (especially one issued by a sovereign); official command
edifice building (of imposing size)
edify instruct; correct morally
eerie weird; causing fear because strange
efface rub out; remove the surface of
effective effectual; producing a strong response; striking; in operation; in effect; Ex. effective speech/photograph
effectual able to produce a desired effect; valid
effectuate effect; produce; achieve; Ex. effectuate a reconciliation
effeminate having womanly traits
effervescence inner excitement or exuberance; showing high spirits; emitting bubbles forming inside; bubbling from fermentation or carbonation; ADJ. effervescent; V. effervesce
effete having lost one's original power; barren; worn out; exhausted
efficacy power to produce desired effect; ADJ. efficacious: effectual
effigy dummy; likeness of a person made of wood, paper, or stone; Ex. burn an effigy of the President
effluvium noxious(harmful) smell
effrontery rudeness without any sense of shame; shameless boldness; presumptousness; nerve; cheek
effulgent shining brightly; brilliant
effusion pouring forth; unrestrained outpouring of feeling; V. effuse: pour out; ADJ. effusive: pouring forth; gushing
ego one's opinion of oneself; self-esteem
egoism excessive interest in one's self; belief that one should be interested in one's self rather than in others; selfishness; ADJ. egoistic, egoistical
egotism tendency to speak or write of oneself excessively; conceit; self-importance
egotistical egotistic; excessively self-centered(egocentric); self-important; conceited
egregious notorious; conspicuously bad or shocking
egress exit; opening for going out; act of going out; OP. ingress
ejaculation exclamation; abrupt ejection (to discharge sperm); V. ejaculate
elaborate work out carefully; add more detail or information; ADJ.
elaboration addition of details; intricacy
elastic able to spring back into shape; quick to recover (as from disappointment); able to adapt to change; Ex. elastic plans; N: elastic material
elated filled with excited joy and pride; overjoyed; in high spirits; joyful and proud; Ex. elated crowd; V. elate; N. elation
elegy poem or song expressing lamentation (for the dead); ADJ. elegiacal, elegiac
elevation elevated position; altitude; height; flat upright side of a building; angle made by pointing a gun; Ex. The elevation of her style is much admired; Ex. front elevation of the house
elicit draw out fact or information (by discussion or from someone)
elixir cure-all; panacea; something invigorating
ellipsis omission of words from a text; mark used to indicate an omission (when the meaning can be understood without them); PL. ellipses
elliptical elliptic; oval; of an ellipse; containing an ellipsis; ambiguous either purposely or because key words have been left out
elope run away secretly with the intention of getting married
eloquence expressiveness; persuasive speech; ADJ. eloquent: movingly expressive; expressing ideas well so that the hearers can be influeneced
elucidate explain; make clear; clarify; enlighten; CF. lucid
elusive evasive; not frank; baffling; hard to grasp, catch, or understand; V. elude: escape from; escape the understanding or grasp of; Ex. elude the hunter; Ex. His name eludes me.
elysian relating to paradise; blissful
Elysium place or condition of bliss
emaciated thin and wasted (from hunger or illness)
emanate issue forth; come out
emancipate set free; liberate
emasculate weaken; castrate
embargo ban on commerce or other activity
embark commence; go on board a boat; begin a journey
embed(imbed) enclose; place in something; fix firmly in a surrounding mass
embellish adorn; ornament; enhance as a story (by adding fictitious details)
embezzlement taking for one's own use in violation of trust; stealing (of money placed in one's care)
embitter make bitter; fill with painful or bitter feelings; make sad and angry; Ex. He was embittered by many disappointments.
emblazon ornament richly (a shield or flag); N. emblazonment
embody give a bodily form to; incorporate; include
emboss produce a design in raised relief; decorate with a raised design
embrace hug; clasp with the arms; adopt or espouse; accept readily; encircle; include; Ex. embrace the cause/socialism; Ex. all-embracing; CF. brace; CF. bracelet
embroider decorate with needlework; ornament (a story) with fancy or fictitious details; embellish
embroil throw into confusion; involve in strife, dispute, or quarrel; entangle; CF. imbroglio
embryonic undeveloped; rudimentary; N. embryo: organism in the early stage of development
emend correct (usually a text); N. emendation: correction of errors; improvement
emetic substance causing vomiting; ADJ.
eminent rising above others; high; lofty; distinguished; Ex. eminent position
emissary agent (sent on a mission to represent another); messenger
emollient soothing or softening remedy (for the skin); ADJ.
emolument salary; payment for an office; compensation
empathy ability to identify with another's feelings, ideas, etc.; identification with and understanding of another's feelings; V. empathize; CF. sympathy
empirical based on experience
emulate imitate; rival; try to equal or excel (through imitation)
enact make (a bill) into law
enamored in love; Ex. enamored of his own beauty; V. enamor: inspire with love
encipher encode; convert a message into code; put into cipher
encircle surround
enclave territory enclosed within an alien land
encomiastic praising; eulogistic; N. encomium: very high praise; eulogy
encompass surround; include; Ex. His activities encompass publishing and computers.
encroachment gradual intrusion; Ex. I resent all these encroachments on my valuable time; V. encroach: take another's possessions or right gradually or stealthily; intrude; Ex. encroach on/upon
encumber burden; N. encumbrance
endear make beloved; Ex. endear her to everyone; ADJ. dear: loved; cherished; high-priced
endearment fond word or act; expression of affection
endemic prevailing among a specific group of people or in a specific area or country; peculiar to a particular region or people; CF. pandemic
endorse approve; support; write one's signature on the back of; N. endorsement; CF. dorsal
endue provide with some quality; endow
enduring lasting; surviving; V. endure: bear (pain or suffering) for a long time; remain alive (in spite of difficulties); last; survive
energize invigorate; give energy to; make forceful and active
enervate weaken; take away energy from
enfranchise admit to the rights of citizenship (especially the right to vote); CF. franchise
engage attract; employ; hire; pledge oneself; confront; fight; enter into confliction; interlock; lock together; participate; N. engagement: agreement to marry; arrangement to meet someone or to do something; battle
engaged employed; busy; betrothed; involved in conflict
engaging charming; attractive
engender cause; produce; give rise to
engross occupy fully; absorb
engulf surround and swallow up
enhance increase; make greater (as in value, reputation, or usefulness); improve
enigma puzzle; mystery; ADJ. enigmatic: obscure; puzzling
enjoin command; order; forbid
enlist (cause to) join the armed forces; obtain (help, sympathy, or support)
enliven make lively or spirited; animate
enmity ill will; hatred; hostility
ennui boredom; listlessness and dissatisfaction resulting from lack of interest; CF. annoy
enormity hugeness (in a bad sense); excessive wickedness; Ex. enormity of the crime; ADJ. enormous
enrapture please intensely; fill with rapture and delight
ensconce settle comfortably; place comfortably (in a secure place)
ensue follow (as a result)
entail make necessary; require; necessitate; involve; limit the inheritance of (property) to a specified succession of heirs; Ex. entail A on/upon B
enterprise willingness to take new ventures; initiative; business organization; plan (that is difficult or daring); Ex. their latest enterprise to sail round the world in a small boat
enterprising full of initiative; showing enterprise
enthrall capture; enslave; captivate; hold the complete attention of (as if magic); hold spellbound
entice lure; persuade to do (something wrong); attract; tempt
entity real being
entomology study of insects
entourage group of attendants; retinue; CF. surround
entrance put under a spell(condition caused by magical power); carry away(fill with strong feeling) with emotion; put into a trance; fill with delight
entreat plead; ask earnestly
entree(entr\'ee) entrance; a way in; right to enter; main dish of a meal; Ex. entree into the exclusive circle
entrepreneur businessperson (who assumes the risk of a business venture); contractor; ADJ. entrepreneurial
enumerate list; mention one by one
enunciate announce; proclaim; utter or speak, especially distinctly; pronounce clearly; articulate; Ex. This theory was first enunciated by him.
environ enclose; surround; N. environs: surrounding area (as of a city)
eon(aeon) long period of time; an age; longest division of geologic time containing two or more eras
epaulet(epaulette) ornament worn on the shoulder (of a uniform, etc.)
ephemeral short-lived; fleeting
epic long heroic poem, novel, or similar work of art (celebrating the feats of a hero); ADJ: (of stories or events) resembling an epic; grand
epicure connoisseur of food and drink; gourmet; ADJ. epicurean; CF. Epicurus
epicurean believing that pleasure is good and suffering is bad and should be avoided; N.
epigram witty thought or saying, usually short
epilogue short speech at conclusion of dramatic work
episodic (of a story or play) loosely connected; made up of separate and loosely connected parts; N. episode: incident in the course of an experience
epistemologist philosopher who studies the nature of knowledge; N. epistemology
epitaph inscription in memory of a dead person (as on a tombstone)
epithet word or phrase characteristically used to describe a person or thing; descriptive phrase to characterize a person (often contemptous)
epitome perfect example or embodiment; brief summary; Ex. epitome of good manners; V. epitomize: make an epitome of; be an epitome of; embody
epoch period of time
equable tranquil; of even calm temper; (of temperature) steady; uniform
equanimity calmness of temperament; composure
equestrian rider on horseback; ADJ.
equilibrium balance of opposing forces; balance of the mind; equanimity
equine resembling a horse; Ex. equine face
equinox period of equal days and nights; the beginning of spring and autumn; Ex. vernal/autumnal equinox; ADJ. equinoctial
equipoise balance; balancing force; equilibrium
equitable fair; impartial; OP. inequitable
equity fairness; justice; OP. inequity
equivocal (of words or statements) ambiguous; intentionally misleading; (of behavior) questionable; OP. unequivocal
equivocate use equivocal language to deceive people; lie; mislead; attempt to conceal the truth; N. equivocation
erode eat away; wear away gradually by abrasion; Ex. The sea erodes the rocks.
erotic pertaining to passionate love or sexual love
errant wandering (esp. in search of adventure); straying from proper moral standards; Ex. knight-errant
erratic odd; irregular in movement or behavior; unpredictable
erroneous mistaken; wrong; incorrect
erudite (of a person or book) learned; full of learning; scholarly; N. erudition
escapade prank; flighty conduct; reckless adventure that disobeys rules
eschew avoid habitually; Ex. eschew alcoholic drinks
esoteric hard to understand; known only to the chosen few, esp. initiates; N. esoterica
espionage spying
espouse adopt; support (an idea or aim); marry; N. espousal
esteem respect; value; judge; N.
estimable (of a person) worthy of esteem; admirable; deserving esteem; possible to estimate
estranged separated; alienated; V. estrange: alienate (people in a family); N. estrangement
ethereal like a spirit or fairy; unearthly light; heavenly; unusually refined; Ex. She has an ethereal beauty; CF. ether: upper air
ethnic relating to races
ethnology study of humankind; study of the different races of human beings; CF. anthropology
ethos underlying character of a culture, group, etc.; character or ideas peculiar to a specific person, group, or culture; Ex. the company ethos
etymology study of word parts; study of the origins of words
eugenic pertaining to the improvement of race; N. eugenics: study of hereditary improvement of the human race
eulogistic praising; full of eulogy
eulogy expression of praise, often on the occasion of someone's death; V. eulogize
euphemism mild expression in place of an unpleasant one; ADJ. euphemistic
euphony sweet sound; ADJ. euphonious
euphoria feeling of exaggerated or unfounded(ungrounded; baseless) well-being; feeling of great happiness or well-being (when unreasonable); ADJ. euphoriaric
euthanasia mercy killing
evanescent fleeting; vanishing; soon disappearing; V. evanesce
evasive not frank; trying to hide the truth; eluding; evading; V. evade: avoid (a duty or responsibility) or escape from by deceit
evenhanded impartial; fair
eventual happening at last as a result; Ex. eventual victory
evince show clearly
evocative tending to call up (emotions, memories)
evoke call forth (memory or feeling); Ex. That old film evoked memories of my childhood; N. evocation
ewe female sheep
exacerbate worsen; aggravate; embitter
exact demand and obtain by force; Ex. exact a promise from him; N. exaction
exacting extremely demanding; Ex. exacting standard of safety
exalt raise in rank or dignity; praise highly; inspire; Ex. exalt the imagination; ADJ. exalted; N. exaltation
exasperate vex; annoy or make angry (by testing the patience)
except exclude; N. exception: objection; exclusion; ADJ. exceptional: unusual; of unusually high quality
exceptionable objectionable; likely to cause dislike; offensive; CF. unexceptionable: entirely acceptable
excerpt selected passage (written or musical) taken from a longer work; V.
exchequer treasury; Ex. Chancellor of the exchequer
excise cut away; cut out; N: government tax on good produced and used inside a country; N. excision
exclaim cry out suddenly; N. exclamation; ADJ. exclamatory
excoriate scold with biting harshness; censure strongly; strip the skin off
exculpate clear from blame or guilt
execrable very bad; detestable
execrate curse; express abhorrence for; detest
execute put into effect; carry out; kill as a lawful punishment; N. execution
executioner person administering capital punishment
executive person having administrative authority; one branch of government executing laws; ADJ: relating to executing
executor person designated to execute the terms of a will;
exegesis explanation, especially of biblical(of the bible) passages
exemplary serving as a model; outstanding; Ex. exemplary punishment/behavior; N. exemplar: typical example; model
exemplify show by example; furnish an example; serve as an example of; Ex. His pictures exemplify that sort of painting.
exempt not subject to a duty or obligation; free from a duty; V.
exertion effort; expenditure of much physical work; V. exert oneself: make a great effort
exhale breathe out; OP. inhale
exhilarating invigorating and refreshing; cheering; V. exhilarate: make cheerful and excited; Ex. exhilarated by the ride in the sports car
exhort urge (by strong argument or advice); Ex. The general exhorted his men to fight bravely; N. exhortation
exhume dig out of the ground; remove from a grave
exigency urgent situation; ADJ. exigent
exiguous small in amount; minute
existential pertaining to existence; pertaining to the philosophy of existentialism
exodus departure (of a large number of people)
exonerate acquit; exculpate; free from blame or guilt
exorbitant (of costs or demands) excessive; exceeding reasonable bounds
exorcise drive out evil spirits
exotic not native; from another part of the world; strange; intriguingly unusual; Ex. exotic flower/dress
expansive (of a person) outgoing and sociable; broad and extensive; able to increase in size
expatiate talk at length; speak or write in detail
expatriate exile; someone who has withdrawn from his native land; V: exile; banish; leave one's country
expedient suitable (for a particular purpose although not necessarily morally correct); practical; politic(prudent); N: something expedient
expedite hasten; make go faster
expeditious done with speed; quick; N. expedition
expenditure payment or expense; expending; something expended; output; Ex. receipt for the expenditure; Ex. expenditure of all the energy
expertise specialized knowledge (in a particular field); expert skill
expiate make amends for (a sin)
expletive meaningless word; interjection; profane oath; swear-word
explicate explain in detail; interpret; clarify; CF. explicable
explicit totally clear; definite; outspoken
exploit make use of, sometimes unjustly; N. exploitation
expos\'e public revelation of something discreditable
expository explanatory; serving to explain; N. exposition: explaining; exhibition
expostulation protest; remonstrance; reasoning with someone to correct or dissuade; V. expostulate
exposure risk, particularly of being exposed to disease or to the elements; unmasking; act of laying something open; Ex. exposure of governmental corruption
expound explain
expropriate take possession of (often for public use and without payment)
expunge cancel; remove a word or name (from a book or list); erase
expurgate clean; remove offensive parts of a book
exquisite delicate; very finely made; extremely beautiful; Ex. exquisite piece of jewelry
extant (of something written or painted) still in existence
extemporaneous not planned; impromptu; extempore
extenuate weaken; mitigate; lessen the seriousness of (bad behavior)
extirpate root up; uproot; destroy completely
extol praise very highly; glorify
extort wring from; get money by threats, etc.; obtain by force or threats; CF. extortionate: exorbitant
extradition surrender of prisoner by one state to another; Ex. extradition treaty; V. extradite
extraneous not essential; irrelevant; superfluous; external; coming from the outside; Ex. extraneous details/noise/to the subject
extrapolation projection; conjecture; V. extrapolate: infer (unknown information) from known information
extricate free from an entanglement or difficulty; disentangle
extrinsic external; not essential or inherent; extraneous; OP. intrinsic
extrovert person interested mostly in external objects and actions
extrude force or push out; thrust out; shape (plastic or metal) by forcing through a die
exuberance overflowing abundance; joyful enthusiasm; flamboyance; lavishness; ADJ. exuberant: high-spirited and lively; growing abundantly and strongly
exude flow out slowly; discharge (gradually); give forth; N. exudation
exult rejoice
fabricate build; lie; make up (a story) in order to deceive; Ex. fabricate the whole story; CF. fabric: underlying structure; Ex. fabric of society
facade(fa\c{c}ade) front or face (of building); superficial or false appearance
facet small plane surface (of a gem(precious stone)); a side
facetious joking (often inappropriately); unserious; humorous
facile easily accomplished; ready or fluent; superficial; not deep; Ex. facile solution to a complex problem; Ex. facile speaker; N. facility: ability to do something easily and well; ease in doing resulting from skill or aptitude; something that facilitates an
facilitate help bring about; make less difficult
facsimile copy
faction party; clique (within a large group); dissension
factious inclined to form factions; causing dissension
factitious artificial; produced artificially; sham; false; Ex. factitious tears
factotum handyman; person who does all kinds of work; CF. do everything
faculty mental or bodily powers; teaching staff
fake not genuine; N: one that is not genuine; impostor; sham; V: counterfeit; Ex. fake the results of the experiment/the signature
fallacious false; based on a fallacy; misleading; N. fallacy: false idea or notion; false reasoning; Ex. popular fallacy; Ex. fallacy of the argument
fallible liable to err
fallow (of land) plowed but not sowed (to improve the quality); uncultivated
falsify make (something written) false by changing
falter hesitate; weaken in purpose or action; walk or move unsteadily through weakness; N.
fanaticism excessive zeal; extreme devotion to a belief or cause; N. fanatic; ADJ. fanatic
fancied imagined; unreal
fancier breeder or dealer of animals; one who has a special interest, as for raising specific plant or animal
fanciful whimsical; visionary; imaginary; produced by imagination; Ex. fanciful scheme
fancy imagination (of a whimsical or fantastic nature); capricious liking; V: imagine; be fond of; ADJ. decorative; elaborate
fanfare call by bugles or trumpets; showy display; spectacular public display
farce broad comedy; mockery; humorous play full of silly things happening; ADJ. farcical
far-fetched too improbable to be believed; implausible; Ex. far-fetched story
fashion give shape to; make; Ex. fashion the pot out of clay
fastidious difficult to please; squeamish; fussy; finicky
fatalism belief that events are determined by forces or fates beyond one's control; ADJ. fatalistic; CF. fatal: causing death
fathom comprehend; investigate; determine the depth of; N. unit of measurement for the depth of water
fathomless too deep to be measured or understood; unfathomable
fatuous smugly and unconsciously foolish; inane; silly; N. fatuity, fatuousness
fauna animals of a period or region; CF. flora
favoritism display of partiality toward a favored person
fawning courting favor by cringing and flattering; V. fawn: exhibit affection as a dog; seek favor or attention by obsequiousness
faze disconcert; dismay; embarrass
feasible practical; able to be carried out; practicable
feature distinctive part of the faces (as the eyes or mouth); features: overall appearance of the face; prominent or distinctive quality; prominent article; film; V: make prominent
febrile feverish
fecundity fertility; fruitfulness; ADJ. fecund: very productive of crops or young
feebleminded deficient in intelligence; very stupid
feign pretend
feint trick; shift; sham blow; feigned attack to draw away defensive action; V.
felicitous (of a word or remark) apt; suitably expressed; well chosen
felicity happiness; appropriateness (of a remark, choice, etc.); quality of being felicitous
feline of a member of the cat family; N.
fell cut or knock down (a tree or a person); bring down (with a missile)
felon person convicted of a grave crime; CF. felony: serious crime
feral (of an animal) not domestic; wild
ferment agitation; commotion(noisy and excited activity); unrest (of a political kind); V. produce by fermentation; undergo fermentation; cause (a state of trouble)
fermentation chemical reaction that splits complex organic compounds; unrest; agitation
ferocious fierce; violent; N. ferocity
ferret drive or hunt out of hiding; hunt with ferrets; drive out (as from a hiding place); expel; uncover or discover by searching; Ex. ferret out the secret; N. small fierce animal which catches rats and rabbits by going into their holes
fertile producing many young, fruits, or seeds; (of land) producing good crops; V. fertilize
fervent ardent; zealous; hot
fervid ardent; zealous; hot
fervor glowing ardor; intensity of feeling; quality of being fervent or fervid; zeal; intense heat
fester rankle; produce irritation or resentment; (of a cut or wound) generate pus or rot; Ex. His insult festered in my mind for days.
festive joyous; celebratory; relating to a feast or festival
fete(f\^ete) honor at a festival; celebrate or honor with a feast; N. (outdoor) festival or feast; CF. feast
fetid(foetid) malodorous; foul
fetish(fetich) object believed to have spiritual powers; object of excessive attention or reverence; CF. fetishism
fetter shackle; restrict the freedom of; N. chain or shackle for the foot of a prisoner; CF. foot
feud bitter prolonged quarrel (usually between two peoples or families); V. CF. Romeo and Juliet; CF. feudal, feudalism
fiasco total failure; CF. bottle
fiat command; arbitrary order; Ex. presidential fiat; CF. let it be done
fickle changeable (in affections or friendship); faithless
fictitious imaginary; non-existent; purposely invented to deceive; untrue; Ex. fictitious name/boyfriend; CF. fictional
fidelity loyalty; accuracy
fiend evil spirit; devil
figment invention; something invented; imaginary thing; Ex. figment of your imagination
figurative not literal but metaphorical; using a figure(impression) of speech
figure written symbols; number; amount represented in numbers; outline or silhouette of a thing or human body; person (well-known); impression; diagram; pattern; group in a dance; Ex. figure of speech; V. calculate with numbers; adorn with figures; appear; cons
figurine small ornamental statuette(very small statue)
filch steal (things of small value)
filial pertaining to or befitting a son or daughter; Ex. filial respect
filibuster block legislation or prevent action in a lawmaking body by making very slow long speeches; N; freebooter
filigree delicate ornamental lacelike metalwork
filing particle removed by a file
filth dirty matter; ADJ. filthy
finale conclusion; concluding part
finery beautiful clothes for a special occasion
finesse delicate skill; V: handle with finesse
finicky too particular; fussy; difficult to please; too concerned with unimportant details or quality; Ex. finicky about her food
finish surface texture; completeness of execution
finished properly made and complete; Ex. finished product/performance
finite limited
firebrand piece of burning wood; hothead; troublemaker; person who stirs up trouble
fissure crevice; crack
fit sudden outburst of an illness or feeling; convulsion caused by epilepsy
fitful spasmodic; intermittent; irregular
flaccid flabby; lacking firmness; weak; Ex. flaccid muscles
flag droop; grow feeble; decline in vigor or strength; ADJ. flagging; CF. unflagging
flagrant conspicuously wicked, bad, or offensive; blatant; outrageous
flail beat with or as if with a flail; move wildly; thresh grain by hand; strike or slap; toss about; N: threshing tool consisting of a stick swinging from the end of a long handle
flair talent
flamboyant ornate; highly elaborate; richly colored; ostentatious; showy; CF. flame
flashy showy; gaudy; giving a momentary brilliance
flaunt display ostentatiously; Ex. ``Honey, if you've got it, flaunt it !''
flay strip off skin; plunder; remove the skin from; criticize harshly
fleck spot; mark with flecks; N: small mark or spot
fledgling(fledgeling) inexperienced; N: young bird that has acquired wing feathers and is learning to fly; inexperienced person
fleece wool coat of a sheep; V: shear the fleece from; rob by a trick; swindle; plunder
fleet fast; rapid; N. ADJ. fleeting: passing quickly; ephemeral
flick light stroke as with a whip; V: move with a light quick blow; strike with a light quick blow (as from a whip); Ex. flick the switch
flicker burn unsteadily or fitfully; move waveringly; N: flickering movement or light; brief sensation; Ex. flicker of excitement
flighty (esp. of a woman's behavior) capricious; often changing, esp. from one lover to another; impulsive
flinch hesitate; shrink back (in fear of something unpleasant); Ex. She did not flinch in the face of danger.
flip send (something) spinning, often into the air, by striking with a light quick blow; turn over; Ex. flip over
flippant lacking proper seriousness; Ex. flippant remarks about death; N. flippancy
flirt behave in a way that attracts (sexual) attention; deal triflingly with; N: one (or woman) given to flirting; ADJ. flirtatious
flit fly; fly or move lightly or quickly; dart lightly; pass swiftly by; Ex. a bee flitting from flower to flower
floe flat mass of floating ice
flora plants of a region or era
florescence condition or period of flowering
florid ruddy; (of a complexion) reddish; flowery; very ornate; CF. rose
flotsam drifting wreckage
flounder struggle and thrash about; proceed clumsily or falter (as in water, mud, snow, etc.); proceed in confusion
flourish grow well; prosper; make sweeping gestures; wave; brandish; Ex. The trees flourished in the sun. N: showy movement or gesture; embellishment or ornamentation (esp. in handwriting)
flout reject; mock; show contempt for; scorn; Ex. flout the rules
flowery full of flowers; full of ornate expressions
fluctuate waver; shift; rise and fall as if in waves; change or vary irregularly
fluency smoothness of speech; ADJ. fluent
fluke unlikely occurrence; stroke of fortune; accidental stroke of good luck; ADJ. fluky
flush redden; blush; flow suddenly and abundantly; wash out by a rapid brief flow of water; N: reddish tinge; blush; brief rush; rush of strong feeling; Ex. flush of pride; ADJ: having surfaces in the same plane; even; blushing
fluster confuse; make nervous and confused; N.
fluted having vertical parallel grooves (as in a pillar); V. flute: make long parallel inward curves in; N. flute: long rounded groove incised on the shaft of a column
flutter (of a bird with large wings) wave (the wings) lightly, rapidly, and irregularly; vibrate rapidly or erratically; fly by waving quickly; flitter; N.
flux flowing; series of changes; fluctuation; Ex. in a state of flux
fodder coarse food for cattle, horses, etc.; feed for livestock; CF. food
foible small weakness of character; slight fault; CF. feeble
foil defeat; frustrate; prevent from being successful; thwart; CF. fail
foist insert improperly; impose upon another by coercion; palm off; pass off as genuine or worthy; CF. fist
foliage masses of leaves; CF. defoliate
foment stir up; incite; instigate; promote the growth of (something evil or unpleasant)
foolhardy rash; reckless; foolishly daring
foppish vain about dress and appearance; N. fop: man who takes too much interest in his clothes and appearance
foray raid; sudden raid or military advance; V.
forbearance patience; forgiveness; V. forbear: refrain from (in a generous and forgiving way); be patient; Ex. forbear to send him to prison
ford place where a river can be crossed on foot; V.
forebears(forbears) ancestors
foreboding premonition of evil; feeling of coming evil; V. forebode: be a warning of (something unpleasant)
forensic suitable to debate or courts of law; of or used in legal proceedings and the tracking of criminals; Ex. forensic science/medicine
forerunner predecessor; one that comes before and indicates the approach of another
foreshadow give an indication beforehand; be a sign of (what is coming); portend; prefigure
foresight ability to foresee future happenings; prudence in providing for the future
forestall prevent by taking action in advance
forfeit something surrendered as punishment for a crime or breach of contract; V: lose as a forfeit; N. forfeiture
forge counterfeit; reproduce fraudulently; form by heating in a forge and hammering into shape; move with a sudden increase of speed or power; Ex. forged ahead in the last two years; N: furnace where metals are heated
forgo(forego) give up; do without
forlorn sad and lonely; wretched; desolate
formality ceremonious quality; ceremonious adherence to rules; something done just for form's sake; Ex. mere formality
formidable menacing; arousing fear; threatening; difficult to defeat; Ex. formidable foe/question
forsake desert; abandon; renounce
forswear renounce under oath; abandon; make a solemn promise to give up; CF. abjure
forte strong point or special talent in a person's character
forthcoming happening in the near future; ready; willing to help; Ex. No answer was forthcoming.
forthright straightforward; direct; frank
fortitude bravery; courage; strength of mind
fortuitous accidental; by chance; N. fortuity
forum public square of an ancient Roman city; public place for open discussion; court of law
forward presumptuous or bold
foster rear; bring up (for a certain period only); encourage; promote the development of (feelings or ideas); Ex. help foster friendly relations; ADJ: giving parental care although not related by blood; Ex. foster parents
foul very bad or disagreeable; very dirty; Ex. foul smell/flavor/temper/language/air/deed/weather/means; N. act against the rules; V. make or become foul; commit a foul
founder person who establishes (an organization or business)
fracas brawl(noisy quarrel or fight) in which a number of people take part; melee
fractious unruly; peevish; cranky; bad-tempered; Ex. fractious horse
frail weak; N. frailty
franchise right or privilege granted by authority; right to vote; license to sell a product in a particular territory
frantic wild; distraught as from fear or worry; Ex. frantic with fear
fraudulent cheating; deceitful; Ex. fraudulent means; N. fraud: deception; swindle
fraught filled (with something unpleasant); full; Ex. fraught with danger and difficulties; CF. freight
fray brawl; fight; V: wear away or unravel by rubbing; have loose threads developing; cause to become worn out (a person's temper or nerves); CF. rub
freebooter pirate or plunderer who makes war in order to grow rich
frenetic(phrenetic) frenzied; frantic
frenzied madly excited; N. frenzy: violent wild excitement
fresco painting on wet plaster (usually fresh)
fret be annoyed or vexed; Ex. fret over your poor grades; N: irritation of mind; ADJ. fretful
friction clash or conflict in opinion; rubbing against
frieze ornamental horizontal band on a wall
frigid intensely cold; cold in manner; Ex. frigid zone
fringe decorative edge of hanging threads; edge
frisk move about playfully; froric; ADJ. frisky: playful
fritter waste (time or money on unimportant things)
frivolous lacking in seriousness; flippant; self-indulgently carefree; unworthy of serious attention; relatively unimportant; trivial
frock long loose garment (worn by monks)
frolic play and jump about happily; frisk; Ex. frolicking young lambs
frolicsome prankish; gay; playful; merry; frisky
frond fern leaf; palm or banana leaf
fructify bear fruit; produce fruit
frugality thrift; economy; ADJ. frugal: practicing economy; costing little; inexpensive
fruitful producing results; profitable; prolific; producing in abundance
fruition bearing of fruit; fulfillment; realization; Ex. come to/be brought to fruition
frustrate thwart; defeat; prevent from accomplishing a purpose
fuddle make stupid or confused as with alcholic drink; N. in a fuddle: confused
fugitive fleeting or transitory; lasting only a short time; roving(wandering); running away or fleeing as from the law; N: one who flees; Ex. fugitives at large
fulcrum support on which a lever rests or pivots
fulminate thunder; explode; issue a severe denunciation
fulsome disgustingly excessive; offensively flattering; Ex. fulsome praise/expressions of admire
fumble move the fingers and hands awkwardly (in search of something); mishandle or drop a ball that is in play; bungle; botch; spoil by mishandling; N.
functional made for practical use only (without decoration); functioning; Ex. functional modern furniture; CF. functionalism
functionary official (who performs a particular function)
fundamental basic; primary; essential
funereal sad; solemn; suitable for a funeral
furor frenzy; great anger and excitement; CF. fury
furrow long shallow trench made by a plow; deep wrinkle in the skin; V.
furtive stealthy; quiet and secret (trying to escape notice); sneaky; Ex. furtive glance
fusillade simultaneous firing or outburst (of missiles, questions, etc.)
fusion union; coalition; V. fuse
fuss: trouble or worry over trifles; make nervous; pay too much attention to; N: needless concern or worry (about a trivial thing); anxious nervous condition; display of attention; Ex. make a fuss over the baby
fussy fastidious; finicky; easily upset
futile useless; hopeless; ineffectual
gadfly animal-biting fly; irritating person
gaffe social blunder
gainsay deny
gait manner of walking or running; speed
galaxy large isolated system of stars, such as the Milky Way; collection of brilliant personalities
gale windstorm; gust of wind; emotional outburst (laughters, tears); Ex. gale of laughter
gall annoy; exasperate; chafe; N: skin sore caused by rubbing (as on the skin of a horse); exasperation
galleon large three-masted sailing ship
galley low ship with sails (rowed along by slaves)
gallows framework from which a noose is suspended (used for execution by hanging)
galvanic of the production of electricity by the action of an acid on a metal; having the effect of an electric shock; Ex. galvanic cell; galvanic effect; CF. Luigi Galvani
galvanize stimulate or shock by an electric current; stimulate by shock; shock into action; stir up; coat with rust-resistant zinc by using electricity
gambit opening in chess in which a piece is sacrificed; action made to produce a future advantage
gambol romp; skip about; leap about playfully; frolic; N.
gamely in a spirited manner; with courage; Ex. fight gamely against a superior boxer; ADJ. game
gamut entire range
gangrene decay of body tissue caused by insufficient blood supply (usually following injury); ADJ. gangrenous
gape open widely; open the mouth wide; stare wonderingly with the mouth open; CF. agape
garbled mixed up; jumbled; distorted; V. garble: mix up or distort (a message) to such an extent as to make misleading or unintelligible
gargantuan huge; enormous; gigantic; CF. the hero of Gargantua and Pantagruel
gargoyle waterspout carved in grotesque figures on a building
garish overbright in color; unpleasantly bright; gaudy
garner gather; store up; amass
garnish decorate; add a garnish to; decorate (food or drink) with small items such as lemon slices; N.
garrulous loquacious; wordy; talkative; N. garrulity
gastronomy art and science of preparing and serving good food; CF. gastronome
gauche clumsy (in social behavior); coarse and uncouth
gaudy flashy; showy
gaunt lean and angular; thin and bony; emaciated; barren
gavel hammerlike tool; mallet(wooden hammer) used by a presiding officer or an auctioneer; V.
gawk stare foolishly; look in open-mouthed awe
gazette official periodical publication; newspaper
genealogy record of descent; lineage; ancestry; study of ancestry
generality vague statement; general statement which is not detailed; quality of being general; greater part; most; Ex. generality of people
generate cause; produce; create
generic characteristic of an entire class or species; of a genus
genesis beginning; origin
geniality cheerfulness; kindliness; sympathy; ADJ. genial: cheerful and good-tempered
genre particular variety of art or literature
genteel well-bred; elegant; striving to convey an appearance of refinement; Ex. genteel poverty
gentility those of gentle birth; high social class; refinement; quality of being genteel
gentle kindly; soft; mild; of good family
gentry people of standing(rank or position); people of good family or high social position; class of people just below nobility
genuflect bend the knee as in worship
genus division of animals or plants, below a family and above a species
geriatrics medical treatment and care of old age
germ earliest form of an organism; seed or bud; something that may develop into something larger or more important; microbe
germane pertinent; bearing upon(having connection with) the case at hand; appropriate
germinal pertaining to a germ; creative; Ex. germinal idea
germinate cause to sprout; sprout
gerontocracy government ruled by old people
gerontology study of the sociological phenomena associated with old age
gerrymander change voting district lines in order to favor a political party; N. CF. Elbridge Gerry + (sala)mander
gestate evolve as in prenatal growth; N. gestation: period of development from conception until birth
gesticulation motion; gesture; V. gesticulate: make gestures (while speaking)
ghastly horrible; terrifying; resembling ghosts; CF. aghast
gibberish nonsense; nonsensical or unintelligible talk or writing; babbling
gibe mock; make jeering remarks; N: jeering remarks
giddy light-hearted; not serious; frivolous; dizzy; causing dizziness; Ex. giddy youth; Ex. giddy climb/height
gild cover with a thin layer of gold
gingerly very carefully; ADJ.
girth distance around something; circumference
gist essence; main point; substance
glacial like a glacier; of an ice age; extremely cold; Ex. glacial epoch; CF. iceberg
glamor compelling charm; ADJ. glamorous
glare shine intensely and blindingly; stare fixedly and angrily; N.
glaring (of something bad) highly conspicuous; harshly bright; shining intensely and blindingly
glaze cover with a thin and shiny surface; apply a glaze to; N: thin, smooth, shiny coating (as for pottery); Ex. unglazed pottery
gleam brief flash of light; glow; V.
glean gather leavings; gather grain left behind by reapers; gather bit by bit (facts or information) often with difficulty
glib fluent (with insincerity or superficiality); facile; slick
glimmer shine erratically; twinkle; N: dim or unsteady light; faint indication; Ex. glimmer of hope
glitter shine brightly with flashing points of light; Ex. glittering diamond ring; N: sparkling light; attractiveness; glamor; Ex. glitter of the sun on the waves
gloat express evil satisfaction; look at or think about with evil satisfaction; view malevolently; Ex. The thief gloated over the stolen jewels.
gloss brief explanation note or translation of a difficult expression; V.
gloss_over explain away with the intention of deceiving or hiding faults
glossary brief explanation of words used in the text
glossy smooth and shining; N. gloss: shiny brightness on a surface; superficially attractive appearance; Ex. gloss of good manners
glow shine brightly without a flame (as of eyes or metals); show redness and heat (in the face) after hard work or because of strong feelings; N: light produced by a heated body; brilliance of a color
glower scowl; glare; look or stare angrily
glut overstock; fill beyond capacity (with food); fill to excess; N: oversupply
glutinous sticky; viscous; gluey
glutton someone who eats too much; ADJ. gluttonous: given to gluttony; greedy; CF. gluttony: habit of eating too much
gnarl protruding knot on a tree; V.
gnarled twisted
gnome dwarf; underground spirit who guards treasure hoards
goad urge on; drive with a goad; cause (someone) to do something by continued annoyance; Ex. They goaded him into doing it by saying he was a coward; N: sharp-pointed stick for driving cattle; stimulus; CF. annoy continually
gobble eat very quickly
gorge stuff oneself (with food); glut; CF. gorgeous: dazzlingly beautiful
gory bloody; N. gore: blood (from a wound)
gossamer sheer; very light; like cobwebs; N: soft and sheer fabric; cobweb
gouge overcharge (with high price); extort from; Ex. gouge the public; CF. usury
gourmand epicure; person who takes excessive pleasure in food and drink
gourmet connoisseur of food and drink; epicure
gracious kind in a generous way (to someone less important)
gradation series of gradual stages; degree in such a progression
graduate arrange into categories or grades; divide into marked intervals (for use in measurement); Ex. graduated ruler
graduated arranged by degrees (of height, difficulty, etc.)
granary storehouse for grain
grandeur impressiveness; stateliness; majesty
grandiloquent (of a person or speech) using high sounding or important-sounding language; pompous; bombastic
grandiose affectedly grand; pretentious; high-flown; ridiculously exaggerated; impressive; great in size or scope; grand; Ex. grandiose ideas
granulate form into grains or granules; N. granule: grain or particle
graphic pertaining to the art of delineating; vividly described
graphite black form of carbon used in lead pencils
grapple wrestle; come to grips with; take hold of and struggle with; Ex. grapple with the burglar
grate make a harsh noise; have an unpleasant effect; shred by rubbing against a rough surface; Ex. grated cheese N: framework of metal bars to hold fuel in a fireplace
gratify please; satisfy; Ex. gratify a desire
gratis free; without charge; ADJ.
gratuitous given freely; unwarranted; uncalled for; done without good reason; Ex. gratuitous comment
gratuity n. money given to sb who has done one a service; tip ;
gravity seriousness; ADJ. grave
graze (of an animal) feed on growing grass; cause (an animal) to feed on grass; scrape (esp. the skin) or touch lightly in passing; brush; Ex. We can't graze the cattle till summer; N: surface wound
gregarious sociable; (of an animal) tending to form a group
grievance cause of complaint; complaint
grill question severely; cook on a grill; broil; N: cooking surface of parallel metal bars
grim causing great fear; unrelenting; determined in spite of fear; Ex. grim smile
grimace facial distortion to show feeling such as pain, disgust, etc; V.
grisly ghastly; horrifying; Ex. grisly remains of the bodies
groom man employed to take care of horses; V: make neat and trim; clean and brush (an animal)
groove long narrow channel made in a surface to guide the movement of something; Ex. groove of the record
gross total; fragrant; clearly wrong; (of people's behavior) coarse; corpulent; Ex. gross insolence/behavior; V: earn as a total amount; N: 12 dozens
grotesque fantastic; comically hideous; strange and unnatural (causing fear or amusement)
grotto small cavern
grouch bad-tempered complaint; person who keeps complaining; V: complain; grumble
grouse complain; fuss; grumble; grouch; N: plump chickenlike game bird
grovel crawl or creep on ground; remain prostrate; behave in a servile manner
growl low, guttural, menacing sound (as of a dog)
grudge deep feeling of dislike; Ex. grudge fight; V.
grudging unwilling; reluctant; stingy(giving reluctantly)
gruel thin liquid porridge
grueling exhausting; Ex. grueling marathon race
gruesome grisly; horrible
gruff rough-mannered; (of a voice) rough; hoarse
grumble complain; mutter discontentedly; grouch; N.
grunt utter a deep guttural sound (as a pig does); N.
guffaw boisterous laughter; V.
guile deceit; duplicity; wiliness; cunning; Ex. persuade her by guile
guileless without deceit
guise outward appearance; costume; Ex. in a new guise
gull trick; deceive; hoodwink; N: person who is easily tricked; dupe
gullible easily deceived
gush (of liquid) pour out in large quantities from a hole; make an excessive display of feeling (without true feeling); Ex. Blood gushed from the wound.
gust strong abrupt rush of wind; V. CF. bluster
gustatory affecting or relating to the sense of taste
gusto eager enjoyment; zest; enthusiasm
gusty windy
guy cable or chain attached to something that needs to be braced or steadied; CF. guide
gyroscope apparatus used to maintain balance, ascertain direction, etc.
habitat natural home of a plant or animal; CF. habitation
habituate accustom or familiarize; addict
hackles hairs on back and neck, especially of a dog; Ex. make someone's hackles rise
hackneyed commonplace; trite
haggard wasted away; gaunt; Ex. haggard faces of the rescued miners
haggle argue about prices (in an attempt to bargain)
hail frozen rain drop; V: salute or greet; precipitate hail
halcyon calm; peaceful; Ex. halcyon days
hale healthy
halfhearted exhibiting little interest or enthusiasm
hallowed blessed; consecrated; Ex. hallowed ground; V. hallow: set apart as holy
hallucination delusion; false idea; false perception of objects with a compelling sense of their reality; objects so perceived; V. hallucinate; ADJ. hallucinatory
halting hesitant; faltering; not fluent; Ex. halting steps/voice; V. halt: proceed or act with uncertainty; falter; hesitate; waver; stop
hamper obstruct; prevent the free movement of;
handsome large in quantity; generous; Ex. handsome reward
hap chance; luck
haphazard random; by chance; happening in an unplanned manner; Ex. haphazard growth of the town
hapless unfortunate; luckless
harangue long, passionate, and vehement speech; V.
harass annoy by repeated attacks
harbinger forerunner (which foreshadows what is to come)
harbor give protection (by giving food and shelter); provide a refuge for; hide; keep in mind (thoughts or feelings); Ex. harbor a grudge/criminal; N: place of shelter; refuge
hardy (of people or animals) sturdy; robust; (of plants) able to stand inclement(stormy) weather
harping tiresome dwelling on a subject; V. harp: dwell on(think or speak a lot about) tediously
harrowing agonizing; distressing; traumatic; V. harrow: break up and level (soil) with a harrow; inflict great distress on; agonize; N: farming machine to break up the earth
harry harass, annoy, torment (by repeated attacks); raid
hatch deck opening; lid covering a deck opening; V: emerge from an egg; produce (young) from an egg
haughtiness pride; arrogance; ADJ. haughty
haunt (of a spirit) visit (a place); come to mind continually; visit (a place) regularly; frequent; Ex. haunted house; Ex. haunted by his last words; N: place much frequented
haven place of safety; refuge; harbor; Ex. tax haven
havoc widespread damage; disorder; chaos
hazard venture; put in danger; risk; Ex. hazard a guess; N: possible source of danger
hazardous dangerous
hazy slightly obscure; misty; unclear; N. haze: light mist or smoke; confused state of mind
headfirst moving with the head leading; headlong
headlong hasty; rash; headfirst; ADV.
headstrong willful; stubborn; unyielding; determined to have one's own way; CF. no 'excessive'
healthful conducive to good health; Ex. healthful mountain air
healthy possessing good health; healthful
heckler person who verbally harasses others; V. heckle: verbally harass as with gibes (by interrupting a speaker or speech)
hedonist one who believes that pleasure is the sole aim in life; CF. hedonism: practice of living one's life purely for pleasure
heed pay attention to; N: close attention
heedless not noticing; disregarding
hegemony dominance especially of one nation over others
heinous atrocious; wicked; hatefully bad; Ex. heinous crime
helm steering wheel of a ship; position of control
hem surround tightly so that movement is impossible; Ex. hem in; N.
herald messenger; sign of something to come; V: announce; proclaim; Ex. unheralded researcher
herbivorous grain-eating; CF. herbivore
herd group of animals; crowd; one who looks after a herd; Ex. shepherd/goatherd; Ex. herd instinct; Ex. herdsman; V: come together in a herd; look after a herd; Ex. herd cattle
hereafter life after death
heresy opinion contrary to popular belief; opinion contrary to accepted religion; ADJ. heretical; CF. heretic
hermetic concerning alchemy or magic; obscure and mysterious; occult
hermitage home of a hermit
herpetologist one who studies reptiles; CF. herpetology: branch of zoology that deals with reptiles and amphibians
heterodox (of beliefs) against accepted opinion; unorthodox; unconventional
heterogeneous dissimilar; mixed; not homogeneous; consisting of dissimilar elements or plants
hew cut to pieces with ax or sword; chop; N.
heyday time of greatest success or power; prime
hiatus gap; pause; gap or interruption in space or time; break
hibernal wintry; wintery; of or like winter
hibernate sleep throughout the winter; N. hibernation
hide skin of an animal
hideous repulsive to the sight; ugly; repugnant; Ex. hideous face/scream
hierarchy arrangement by rank or standing; authoritarian body divided into ranks; body of persons having authority
hieroglyphic picture writing; ADJ.
high-flown highly pretentious or inflated
hilarity boisterous mirth(merriment; laughter); ADJ. hilarious: full of laughter
hindmost furthest behind; farthest to the rear
hindrance block; obstacle; V. hinder
hindsight understanding the nature of an event after it has actually happened
hinterlands back country; inner part of a country; OP. foreland
hireling one who serves for hire (usually used contemptuously); one who works solely for compensation; Ex. hireling politician
hirsute hairy; having a lot of hair
historic important in history; Ex. historic battle
historical connected with history; based on events in history (whether regarded as important or not)
histrionic theatrical; excessively dramatic or emotional; affected; of actors or acting; N. histrionics: histrionic behavior
hive box for bees; V: cause to go in a hive
hoard stockpile; accumulate for future use; N: supply stored for future use
hoary white with age
hoax trick which makes someone take action; practical joke; Ex. hoax mail; V.
holocaust destruction by fire; CF. burnt whole; CF. Holocaust
holster leather pistol case (that hangs on a belt around the waist)
homage honor; tribute; great respect; Ex. pay/do homage to
homely not good-looking; unattractive
homeostasis tendency of a system or organism to maintain relative stability or internal equilibrium; CF. homeo-: constant; Ex. homeotherm
homespun domestic; made at home; spun or woven at home; simple and ordinary; Ex. homespun philosophy
homily sermon; tedious moralizing lecture; serious warning; ADJ. homiletic
homogeneous of the same kind; uniform in composition throughout
hone sharpen (a tool); N: whetstone for sharpening a tool
hoodwink deceive; delude
horde crowd; swarm
horoscope diagram of the positions of stars at a given moment (eg. of a person's birth) used by astrologers
hortatory encouraging; exhortive; marked by exhortation; CF. exhort
horticultural pertaining to cultivation of gardens; N. horticulture: science or art of cultivating fruits, vegetables, or ornamental plants; CF. agriculture: science or art of farming or growing crops
hostage person who is kept as a prisoner by an enemy so that the other side will do what the enemy demands
hostility unfriendliness; hatred; enmity; ADJ. hostile
hothead person who does things too quickly without thinking; ADJ. hotheaded
hovel shack; small wretched house
hover hang about; (of birds or aircraft) stay in the air in one place; (of people) wait nearby; stay around one place; waver; be in an uncertain state
hubbub confused uproar; loud noise; din
hubris arrogance; excessive self-conceit
hue color; aspect; Ex. opinions of every hue
hue_and_cry outcry; loud cry or clamor; strong protest; Ex. hue and cry against the new rule
hull husk; dry outer covering of a seed; frame or body of a ship
humane marked by kindness or consideration; kind and compassionate; humanitarian
humanitarian one devoted to the promotion of human welfare; CF. humanism
humble of low rank or position; modest; having a low opinion of oneself and a high opinion of others; unassuming; not proud; V. humiliate: make humble; cause to feel ashamed or to lose the respect of others
humdrum dull; monotonous
humid damp; N. humidity
humility humbleness of spirit
hummock small hill; hillock
humor indulge; comply with the wishes of; N. quality that makes something amusing; state of mind; mood; Ex. in a bad humor; Ex. out of humor
humus substance or rich soil formed by decaying vegetable matter; CF. soil
hurl throw forcefully; shout out violently
hurtle crash; rush; move with great speed; Ex. hurtling runaway train
husband use sparingly; conserve; save; Ex. husband one's energy; CF. house holder
husbandry frugality; thrift; economy; agriculture; farming; Ex. animal husbandry; CF. husbandman
hut crude dwelling; shack
hybrid mongrel; mixed breed; V. hybridize
hydrophobia fear of water; rabies
hygiene science and practice of the promotion and preservation of health; ADJ. hygienic: showing careful attention to cleanness (to prevent disease); Ex. hygienic condition
hyperbole exaggeration; overstatement; ADJ. hyperbolic: of hyperbole; of a hyperbola
hypercritical excessively exacting; too critical (without noticing good qualities)
hypnosis induced sleeping state; ADJ. hypnotic; V. hypnotize
hypochondriac person unduly worried about his health; worrier without cause about illness; ADJ. CF. hypochondria: neurosis that one is or is becoming ill; CF. abdomen
hypocritical pretending to be virtuous; deceiving; N. hypocrisy: profession of beliefs one does not possess; CF. hypocrite
hypothetical based on assumptions or hypotheses; supposed; N. hypothesis
hysteria excessive or uncontrollable excitement; N. hysteric: person suffering from hysteria; CF. hysterics: attack of hysteria
ichthyology study of fish; CF. ichthyo-: fish
icon(ikon) religious image; idol; image or representation
iconoclastic attacking cherished traditions; N. iconoclast: one who attacks traditional ideas; one who destroys sacred images
ideology system of ideas characteristic of a group or culture
idiom expression whose meaning as a whole differs from the meanings of its individual words; distinctive style (of expression); Ex. idiom of the modern popular music; ADJ. idiomatic
idiosyncrasy individual trait usually odd in nature; behavioral peculiarity; eccentricity; attitude, behavior, or opinion peculiar to a person; anything highly individual or eccentric; ADJ. idiosyncratic
idle not working; not employed or busy; lazy; without purpose; useless; lacking substance; baseless; not based on truth; Ex. idle worker; Ex. talk idly; V.
idolatry worship of idols; excessive admiration or devotion; ADJ. idolatrous
idyll(idyl) short poem idealizing rural life; simple happy period of life (in the country); scene from such a time; Ex. idyll of two young lovers
idyllic charmingly carefree; simple and happy; Ex. idyllic scene
igneous produced by fire; of fire; volcanic; (of rocks) formed from lava; Ex. igneous meteorite
ignite kindle; light; catch fire or set fire to
ignoble unworthy; not noble; dishonorable; Ex. ignoble deed
ignominy deep disgrace; shame or dishonor; ADJ. ignominious; Ex. ignominous defeat
illicit illegal
illimitable infinite; limitless
illuminate brighten; clear up or make understandable; enlighten; enable to understand; Ex. illuminating remarks
illusion misleading vision or visual image; false idea or belief; CF. delusion
illusive deceiving; based on illusion; causing illusion; deceptive
illusory illusive; deceptive; not real
imbalance lack of balance or symmetry; disproportion
imbecility weakness of mind; state of being an imbecile; N. imbecile: stupid person; fool
imbibe drink in
imbroglio complicated situation (as in a play); painful or complex misunderstanding (as in a play); entanglement; confused mass (as of papers); V. embroil
imbue saturate(soak thoroughly); fill; Ex. imbue someone with feelings
immaculate spotless; flawless; absolutely clean
imminent impending; near at hand
immobility state of being immovable
immolate offer or kill as a sacrifice (by fire)
immune resistant to; free or exempt from; N. immunity
immure imprison; shut up in confinement; CF. wall
immutable unchangeable
impair injure; hurt; damage
impale pierce (with a sharp point); Ex. impaled by the spear
impalpable imperceptible(not easily understood); intangible; OP. palpable: tangible; easily perceptible
impart grant a share of; make known; Ex. news to impart
impartial not biased; fair; N. impartiality
impassable not able to be traveled or crossed
impasse predicament(dangerous condition) from which there is no escape; situation allowing for no further progress
impassioned (of speech) filled with passion; fervent
impassive without feeling; expressionless; imperturbable; stoical; Ex. impassive face
impeach charge (a public official) with crime in office; raise doubts about; indict; Ex. impeach a witness's credibility
impeccable faultless
impecunious without money
impede hide; retard or obstruct the progress of; block
impediment hindrance; stumbling-block; speech defect preventing clear articulation; Ex. speech impediment
impel drive or force onward; drive to take action; urge to action
impending nearing; approaching; about to happen
impenetrable not able to be pierced or entered; beyond understanding; impossible to understand; Ex. impenetrable mystery
impenitent not repentant
imperative absolutely necessary; that must be done; critically important; expressing command; Ex. It is imperative that; N: something that must be done
imperceptible unnoticeable; impossible to perceive; undetectable
imperial like an emperor; related to an empire; CF. imperialism
imperil put in danger
imperious domineering; too commanding; haughty; CF. imperial/emperor
impermeable impervious; not permitting passage through its substance; impossible to permeate
impersonal not being a person; not showing personal feelings; Ex. impersonal force/manner/organization
impertinent insolent; rude; not pertinent; N. impertinence
imperturbable unshakably calm; placid
impervious impenetrable; incapable of being damaged or distressed; incapable of being affected (in one's opinions); Ex. impervious to water/criticism
impetuous violent; hasty; rash; impulsive; without careful thought; Ex. impetuous decision
impetus moving force; momentum; force of a moving body; incentive; stimulus; impulse
impiety irreverence; lack of respect for God or piety
impinge infringe; encroach; influence; touch; collide with; Ex. The effects are impinging on every aspect of our lives.
impious irreverent
implacable incapable of being pacified; impossible to appease; Ex. implacable enemy
implausible unlikely (to be true); unbelievable; Ex. implausible alibi
implement put into effect; enforce; carry out; supply with tools; Ex. implement the plan/suggestion; N: tool or instrument
implicate incriminate; involve incriminatingly; show to be involved (in a crime); Ex. implicate someone in the crime
implication something hinted at or suggested; implying; implicating
implicit understood but not stated; implied; unquestioning and complete; Ex. implicit trust
implode burst inward; CF. vaccum tube
implore v. ask or beg earnestly; beseech
imply suggest a meaning not expressed; signify
impolitic not wise; not expedient; not politic
imponderable weightless; that cannot undergo precise evaluation; CF. pound
import significance; importance; meaning
importunate urging; always demanding; troublesomely urgent or persistent
importune beg persistently; make repeated requests (in an annoying way)
imposture assuming a false identity; masquerade; CF. impostor
impotent weak; ineffective; lacking in physical strength or power
impoverish make poor; deprive of natural strength or something important; Ex. impoverished soil
imprecation curse; swearword
impregnable invulnerable; impossible to capture or enter by force; Ex. impregnable fort/argument; CF. take
impregnate make pregnant; fill thoroughly; saturate
impromptu without previous preparation; off the cuff(end of a sleeve); on the spur of the moment
impropriety improperness; unsuitableness
improvident thriftless; not providing for the future
improvise compose on the spur of the moment
imprudent lacking caution; not prudent; injudicious
impudence impertinence; insolence
impugn dispute or contradict (often in an insulting way); attack as false or questionable; challenge; gainsay; CF. fight
impuissance powerlessness; feebleness
impunity freedom from punishment or harm; CF. punish
impute attribute; ascribe; charge; N. imputation
inadvertently unintentionally; by oversight; carelessly
inalienable not to be taken away; nontransferable; Ex. inalienable rights
inamorata woman whom a man loves
inane silly; senseless; Ex. inane remarks; N. inanity
inanimate lifeless; not animate
inarticulate speechless; producing indistinct speech; not articulate; not expressing oneself clearly
inasmuch_as since; owing to the fact that
inaugurate begin formally; install in office; induct into office by a formal ceremony; N. inauguration; ADJ. inaugural
incandescent strikingly bright; shining with intense heat; emitting visible light when heated; Ex. incandescent light bulb; CF. candle
incantation singing or chanting of magic spells; magical formula; (the saying of) words used in magic; CF. enchant
incapacitate disable; N. incapacity: lack of capacity
incarcerate imprison
incarnate endowed with flesh; invested with bodily form; personified; Ex. devil incarnate; V: give bodily form to; embody
incarnation act of assuming a human body and human nature; one who personifies something; personification; Ex. previous incarnation/reincarnation
incendiary arsonist; ADJ: causing fire; of arson; Ex. incendiary bomb
incense enrage; infuriate(make furious); make extremely angry; outrage; N: aromatic substance burned to produce a pleasant odor
incentive spur; motive; something which encourages one to greater activity
inception start; beginning
incessant uninterrupted; unceasing
inchoate (of desire, wish, plan) recently begun; not explicit; at the beginning of development; rudimentary; elementary; Ex. inchoate mass
incidence rate of occurrence; particular occurrence; Ex. high incidence of infant mortality
incident event; event that causes a crisis
incidental not essential; minor; N: something incidental
incinerate burn to ashes
incipient beginning; in an early stage
incisive (appreciatively) cutting; sharp; Ex. incisive remarks; V. incise: make a cut into
incite arouse to action; goad; motivate; induce to exist; Ex. incite a riot/the crowd to rebellion
inclement stormy; unkind; unmerciful; CF. clement
incline slope; slant; Ex. steep incline
inclined tending or leaning toward; bent; V. incline: slant; dispose; be disposed; tend
inclusive tending to include all; all-inclusive; Ex. inclusive charge
incognito with identity concealed; using an assumed name; ADJ.
incoherent unintelligible; muddled; unable to express one's thoughts in an orderly manner; illogical; lacking cohesion; not coherent
incommodious not spacious; inconvenient
incompatible inharmonious; N. incompatibility
incongruity lack of harmony; absurdity; ADJ. incongruous: lacking in harmony; inappropriate
inconsequential insignificant; unimportant
inconsistency state of being self-contradictory; lack of uniformity or steadiness; ADJ. inconsistent: displaying a lack of consistency; erratic; contradictory; incompatible
incontinent lacking self-restraint; not continent; licentious
incontrovertible indisputable; impossible to dispute; not open to question; unquestionable
incorporate introduce something into a larger whole; include; embody; give material form to; ADJ.
incorporeal without a material body; insubstantial
incorrigible uncorrectable
incredulity tendency to disbelief
incredulous withholding belief; skeptical; showing disbelief
increment increase
incriminate accuse of or implicate in a crime; serve as evidence against; cause to seem or make guilty of a crime; Ex. incriminating evidence
incrustation hard coating or crust; V. incrust: encrust; cover with a crust
incubate hatch; warm (eggs) with the body to promote hatching; maintain at optimal environment conditions for development; be holding in one's body an infection which is going to develop into a disease; N. incubation; CF. incubation:disease
incubus burden; very worriying problem; mental care; nightmare; male devil; CF. succubus
inculcate teach (ideas or principles); instill
incumbent obligatory; imposed as an obligation; currently holding an office; N: person who holds an office
incur bring upon oneself
incursion temporary invasion; CF. excursion: short journey
indecision irresolution; inability to make up one's mind
indecisive marked by indecision; inconclusive; Ex. indecisive battle
indefatigable tireless; untiring; showing no sign of getting tired
indelible not able to be erased
indemnify make secure against damage or loss; compensate for damage or loss; CF. make uninjured
indentation notch; deep recess; V. indent; CF. tooth
indenture bind as servant or apprentice to master; bind by indenture; N: contract binding one party into the service of another for a specified time (as between an apprentice and his master)
indeterminate uncertain; not clearly fixed; indefinite
indicative suggestive; implying; serving to indicate
indices signs; indications; Ex. indices of a student's potential; CF. index: something that reveals or indicates; sign; Ex. cost-of-living index
indict charge; N. indictment
indifferent unmoved or unconcerned by; having no interest in; mediocre; neither good nor bad
indigence poverty
indigenous native; Ex. plant indigenous to the New World
indigent poor; destitute
indignation anger at an injustice; Ex. righteous indignation; ADJ. indignant
indignity treatment or situation that causes shame or loss of dignity, respect; offensive or insulting treatment; humiliating or degrading treatment; Ex. I suffered the indignity of having to say that in front of them.
indiscriminate choosing at random; confused; not based on careful distinctions
indisputable too certain to be disputed; beyond doubt
indissoluble permanent; impossible to dissolve or disintegrate
indite write; compose
indoctrinate cause to accept a doctrine without questioning it; Ex. indoctrinated with mindless anti-communism
indolent lazy
indomitable unconquerable; unyielding
indubitable unable to be doubted; which cannot be doubted; unquestionable
induce persuade; lead to do something; bring about; N. inducement
induct place formally in office; install; admit as a member; initiate; N. induction: inducting; process of deriving general principles from particular facts
inductive pertaining to induction or proceeding from the specific to the general
indulge yield to; gratify; allow oneself a special pleasure; Ex. indulge one's every whim/a child/in a big cigarette; N. indulgence
indulgent humoring; yielding; lenient; showing indulgence
industrious diligent; hard-working; N. industry
inebriate make drunk; intoxicate; N. intoxicated person
inebriated habitually intoxicated; drunk; N. inebriety
ineffable unutterable; not to be uttered; taboo; that cannot be expressed in speech; indescribable; unspeakable; inexpressible; Ex. ineffable name/joy
ineffectual not effective; not having a desired effect; weak
ineluctable irresistible; not to be escaped; unavoidable
inept unsuited; inappropriate; lacking skill; incompetent; CF. inapt: (of statements or ideas) inappropriate
inequity unfairness; ADJ. inequitable
inerrancy infallibility
inert inactive; lacking power to move; unable to move or act; Ex. chemically inert; N. inertia: state of being inert; force which keeps a thing in the position or state
inestimable impossible to estimate; (apprec) invaluable; of immeasurable worth
inevitable unavoidable
inexorable relentless; unyielding; implacable; not capable of being changed by entreaty or efforts; Ex. inexorable price rises
inextricable from which it is impossible to get free; that cannot be untied; Ex. inextricable troubles; Ex. inextricable two histories
infallible unerring; never making mistakes
infamous notoriously bad; notorious; well known for being bad; Ex. infamous behavior; N: infamy: infamous act; evil fame or reputation
infantile childish; infantlike
infer deduce; conclude; N. inference
infernal pertaining to hell; devilish; N. inferno: place of fiery heat or destruction
infest inhabit in numbers large enough to be harmful; Ex. Mice infested the house; Ex. shark-infested waters
infidel unbeliever (with respect to a particular religion)
infiltrate pass into or through; penetrate or enter (an organization) sneakily; Ex. infiltrate the troops into enemy territory; CF. infiltrator
infinitesimal very small
infirmity weakness
inflated exaggerated; pompous; enlarged (with air or gas)
influx flowing into
infraction violation (of a rule or regulation); breach
infringe violate (a law); encroach (the right of another person)
ingenious marked by inventive skill; clever; resourceful; N. ingenuity
ingenue ing\'enue; young innocent girl
ingenuous naive and trusting; young; unsophisticated; candid
ingrained deeply established; firmly rooted; Ex. ingrained dirt/prejudice
ingrate ungrateful person (not expressing thanks)
ingratiate become popular with; bring (oneself) in favor of another; Ex. ingratiate himself with the boss
inherent firmly established by nature or habit; intrinsic
inhibit restrain; prohibit; retard or prevent; N. inhibition
inhibited (of a person) unable to express what one really feels
inimical (of someone) unfriendly; hostile; (of something) harmful; detrimental; CF. enemy
inimitable matchless; not able to be imitated
iniquitous wicked; immoral; unrighteous; N. iniquity; Ex. den of iniquity
initiate begin; originate; receive into a group; introduce to a new field or activity; Ex. initiate someone into the mysteries of a secret religion; N: one who has been initiated
injurious harmful; causing injury
inkling hint; slight indication
innate inborn
innocuous harmless
innovation change; something newly introduced; introduction of something new; V. innovate: begin or introduce (something new); be creative; ADJ. innovative
innuendo indirect or subtle (derogatory) hint; insinuation; Ex. sexual innuendo
inopportune untimely; inappropriate or ill-timed; poorly chosen
inordinate beyond reasonable limits; unrestrained; excessive; Ex. inordinate demands
inquisitive eager for knowledge; unduly curious
inquisitor questioner (especially harsh); investigator; person making an inquisition
inroad hostile invasion; advance that lessens the quantity or difficulty of something; Ex. The long illness made serious inroads on his savings; CF. raid
insalubrious unwholesome; not healthful; Ex. insalubrious place
insatiable not easily satisfied; unquenchable; Ex. insatiable appetite
inscrutable difficult to understand; impenetrable; not readily understood; mysterious
insensate without feeling; lacking sense; foolish
insensible unconscious; unresponsive; insensitive; unaware; imperceptible; Ex. insensible of his danger/to pain; Ex. insensible change; CF. not the opposite of sensible
insidious treacherous; stealthy; sly; working or spreading harmfully in a stealthy manner; Ex. insidious spreading of dry rot
insightful discerning; perceptive
insinuate hint; imply; suggest indirectly; creep in; introduce or insert (oneself) by artful means; Ex. insinuate himself into the boss's favor; CF. ingratiate
insipid lacking in flavor; lacking interest; dull; Ex. insipid food/character
insolence impudent disrespect; haughtiness; ADJ. insolent; CF. haughty + rude
insolvent bankrupt; lacking money to pay; N. insolvency
insomnia wakefulness; inability to sleep
insouciant without concern or care; unconcerned; indifferent
instigate start; urge; provoke; incite; Ex. instigate a search/quarrel
institute organization for a special purpose; V: establish
institution instituting; (building for the) organization; established custom, practice, or relationship in a society; mental hospital; Ex. institution of marriage
institutionalize make into an institution; put or confine in an institution
insubordination disobedience; rebelliousness; ADJ. insubordinate
insubstantial lacking substance; insignificant; frail; immaterial
insularity narrow-mindedness; isolation; ADJ. insular: of an island; isolated; narrow-minded; CF. peninsula
insuperable insurmountable; unbeatable; Ex. insuperable difficulties
insurgent rebellious; N.
insurmountable overwhelming; unbeatable; insuperable
insurrection rebellion; uprising
intangible not able to be perceived by touch; vague
integral complete; necessary for completeness; Ex. integral part
integrate make whole; combine; make into one unit
integrity honesty; uprightness; wholeness; state of being whole and undivided; completeness
intellect higher mental powers; person of great intellectual ability
intelligentsia intellectuals; members of the educated elite (often used derogatorily)
inter bury; N. interment
interdict prohibit; forbid; N.
interim meantime; Ex. in the interim; ADJ. taking place during an interim; Ex. interim paper
interjection exclamation; Ex. ``Ouch''
interloper intruder; one who interferes
intermediary intermediate; acting as a mediator; N: mediator; go-between
interminable endless
intermittent periodic; on and off; stopping and starting at intervals
internecine mutually destructive
interpolate insert between
interregnum period between two successive reigns or governments
interrogate question closely; cross-examine; cross-question
interstice narrow space between things
intervene come between; interfere; Ex. intervened to prevent a fight; N. intervention
intimate hint; suggest; imply; ADJ: marked by close relationship; familiar; private; personal; Ex. intimate knowledge/thoughts in the diary; N: close friend or confidant; CF. intimacy
intimidate frighten; N. intimidation
intolerant not willing to accept ways of thinking different from one's own; CF. tolerant; CF. tolerate
intoxicate make drunk; stimulate or excite; Ex. intoxicated by all the money he might win
intractable unruly; difficult to manage; Ex. intractable problem/child
intransigence refusal of any compromise; stubbornness; ADJ. intransigent: uncompromising
intrepid fearless
intrigue make secret plans; plot; arouse the curiosity of; N: secret scheme; plot; secret love affair
intrinsic essential; inherent; built-in
introspective looking within oneself; N. introspection: self-examination
introvert one who is introspective or inclined to think more about oneself; ADJ. introverted
intrude put or force in without being asked; trespass; enter as an uninvited person; Ex. intrude one's own opinion into the report; CF. thrust in
intuition immediate insight; power of knowing without reasoning; ADJ. intuitive; V. intuit: know by intuition
inundate flood; overflow; submerge; cover completely; Ex. inundated with work
inured accustomed; hardened; Ex. inured to the Alaskan cold; V. inure: make used to something undesirable; harden; CF. unfeeling
invalid one incapacitated(disabled) by a chronic illness; ADJ: incapacitated by illness; not valid; null; V: allow to leave (a military force) because of ill-health
invalidate weaken; destroy; make invalid; nullify
invective abuse
inveigh denounce; utter censure or invective; Ex. inveigh against the evils of drink
inveigle deceive; lead astray by deception; wheedle(cajole); Ex. inveigle her into joining the club; CF. interest dishonestly
inverse opposite
invert turn upside down or inside out; reverse the position or condition of
inveterate deep-rooted; habitual; CF. grow old
invidious designed to create ill will or envy; tending to rouse ill will or envy; Ex. invidious comparison
invincible unconquerable
inviolable secure from corruption, attack, or violation(or profanation); unassailable; Ex. inviolable oath/rights; N. inviolability
invocation prayer for help (used in invoking); calling upon as a reference or support; act of invoking
invoke call and bring into use (a right or law); call on/upon (a higher power or god) for help; ask for; beg for; conjure (a spirit); Ex. invoke the veto power; Ex. invoke one's advisor/God
invulnerable incapable of injury; impossible to damage or injure
iota very small quantity
irascible irritable; easily angered
irate angry; CF. ire: anger; wrath
iridescent exhibiting rainbowlike colors; Ex. iridescent oil slick; N. iridescence
irksome annoying; tedious; V. irk: annoy
ironic expressing irony; occurring in an unexpected and contrary manner
irony hidden sarcasm or satire; use of words that seem to mean the opposite of what they actually mean; use of words to convey the opposite of their literal meaning
irreconcilable impossible to reconcile; incompatible; not able to be resolved
irrefutable indisputable; incontrovertible; undeniable
irrelevant not applicable; unrelated
irremediable incurable; uncorrectable; impossible to remedy
irreparable not able to be corrected or repaired; impossible to repair
irrepressible unable to be restrained or held back; impossible to hold back
irreproachable beyond reproach; blameless; impeccable; Ex. irreproachable conduct
irresolute uncertain how to act; weak; lacking in resolution; indecisive; N. irresolution
irretrievable impossible to recover or regain; CF. retrieve
irreverence lack of proper respect or reverence; ADJ. irreverent
irrevocable unalterable; irreversible; impossible to revoke
isotope varying from of an element
isthmus narrow neck of land connecting two larger bodies of land
itinerant wandering; traveling from place to place (to perform work); Ex. itinerant preacher
itinerary plan of a trip; record of a trip
jab poke abruptly with something sharp; punch with short blows
jabber chatter rapidly or unintelligibly
jaded tired or uninterested by surfeit; fatigued; surfeited; worn out; wearied; Ex. jaded appetite
jargon language used by special group; technical terminology; gibberish; nonsensical or incoherent talk
jaundice medical condition in which the skin, the white part of the eyes, etc. turn yellow; V: affect with jaundice; affect with prejudice, envy, or hostility; bias
jaundiced yellowed; prejudiced (envious, hostile, or resentful) from long and disappointing experience of human affairs; Ex. with a jaundiced eye
jaunt trip; short journey
jaunty cheerful and pleased with life; lighthearted; animated; easy and carefree; dapper in appearance; Ex. jaunty person/hat
jeopardize endanger; imperil; put at risk; N. jeopardy: danger
jest playful remark or act; V. act or speak playfully
jetsam things thrown from a ship (to lighten the ship)
jettison throw overboard (from a ship or plane)
jibe agree; be in harmony with; gibe
jingoist extremely aggressive and militant patriot; warlike chauvinist; N. jingoism: extreme nationalism
jocose given to(having a tendency of) joking
jocular said or done in jest or playfully; marked by joking
jocund merry
jollity gaiety; cheerfulness; ADJ. jolly: merry; gay
jostle shove; bump; push against (someone) rather roughly; Ex. jostled by the crowds
jovial good-natured; merry; cheerful
jubilation rejoicing; great joy
judiciary judicial branch of government
judicious sound on judgment; wise
jug pitcher; container for holding liquids
juggernaut irresistible crushing force; overwhelming advancing force that crushes everything in its path
jumble mix in a confused way
juncture crisis; point in time; joining point; joint; act of joining
junket trip especially one taken for pleasure by an official at public expense
junta group of persons joined in political intrigue; cabal; group of military officers ruling a country after seizing power (by force)
juridical of the law and its administration; CF. judicial: of courts of law; CF. judiciary
jurisdiction right and power to apply the law; authority
jurisprudence science of law
juxtapose place side by side; CF. next
kaleidoscope tube in which patterns made by the reflection in mirrors of colored pieces of glass, etc. produce interesting symmetrical effects; series of changing events; Ex. kaleidoscope of European history; CF. beautiful
ken range of knowledge; Ex. beyond one's ken
kernel central or vital part; core; whole seed (as of corn)
killjoy grouch; spoilsport; one who intentionally spoils the pleasure of others
kindle start a fire; ignite; inspire; arouse
kindred related; belonging to the same group; similar in nature or character; Ex. kindred languages; N: relative; kin; kinship
kinetic producing motion; of motion
kismet fate; destiny; Ex. Kismet is the Arabic word for fate.
kleptomaniac person who has a compulsive desire to steal
knack special talent; art
knave untrustworthy person; rogue; scoundrel; jack; N. knavery
knead mix; work dough; mix and work into a uniform mass (with the hands); Ex. knead dough
kneel go down on one's knee(s)
knell tolling of a bell especially to indicate a funeral, disaster, etc.; sound of the funeral bell; V.
knit contract into wrinkles; grow together; join together closely; make (a fabric or garment) by interwining yarn or thread; Ex. knit the brow; Ex. The bones should knit together in a few weeks.
knoll little round hill; hillock
knotty intricate; difficult; tangled; CF. knot
kudos honor; glory; acclaim or praise for exceptional achievement
labile likely to change; unstable; Ex. emotionally labile; N. lability
laborious demanding much work or care; tedious
labyrinth maze
lace cord used to draw and tie together two opposite edges (as of a shoe); delicate fabric made of fine threads; V: draw together by tying a lace
laceration torn ragged wound; V. lacerate: tear (the skin as with broken glass); wound
lachrymose producing tears; tearful
lackadaisical lacking interest or effort; lacking purpose or zest; lazy; halfhearted; languid
lackluster lacking luster(shine; gloss); dull
laconic brief and to the point; using few words; terse
lag move or develop more slowly; straggle; Ex. lag behind the rest; N.
laggard slow; sluggish; N: one who lags; straggler
lagoon shallow body of water or lake near a sea; lake separated from a sea by sandbars or coral reefs
laity laypersons; laymen; persons not connected with the clergy
lament grieve; express sorrow; N. lamentation
lampoon ridicule; N: written attack ridiculing or satirizing a person, group, or institution
lance pierce with a lance; cut into; N: spearlike weapon
lancet small surgical tool for making incisions
languid lacking energy or vitality; weary; sluggish; listless
languish lose animation or strength
languor lack of physical or mental energy; lassitude; depression
lank long and thin; Ex. Lank, gaunt, Abraham Lincoln
lap take in food or drink with one's tongue; splash gently; Ex. waves lapping the shore; N: front area from the waist to the knees of a seated person
larceny theft; Ex. petit larceny
larder pantry; place where food is kept
largess generous gift (given to people who do not have enough)
lascivious lustful
lassitude languor; weariness; listlessness
latch fastening or lock consisting of a movable bar that fits into a notch; V: close with a latch
latent present but not yet noticeable or active; dormant; hidden; N. latency; CF. potential
lateral of or coming from the side
latitude freedom from narrow limitations
laud praise; N. ADJ. laudable: praiseworthy; ADJ. laudatory: expressing praise
lavish liberal; wasteful; generous or wasteful in giving or using; abundant; profuse; great; Ex. decorated lavishly; V. give in abundance
lax careless; negligent; not paying enough attention; Ex. lax service
layman man who is not a cleric; man who is nonprofessional
leash restraining rope fastened to the collar of an animal (to control it); Ex. a dog on a leash
leaven add leaven to; cause to rise or grow lighter; enliven; N: agent, such as yeast, that causes dough to rise (by fermentation); element that lightens or enlivens
leave-taking farewell or departure
lechery gross lewdness; lustfulness; ADJ. lecherous; N. lecher: lecherous man
lectern reading desk or stand for a public speaker
leery (of someone) suspicious; wary; cautious
leeway room to move; margin; latitude; Ex. leeway for the deadline
legacy gift made by a will; something handed down from an ancestor
legato (of music) played smoothly
legend explanatory list of symbols on a map
legerdemain sleight(dexterity) of hand; CF. light of hand
legislature legislating branch of government; CF. legislate: make laws
leniency mildness; permissiveness; ADJ. lenient: not severe in judgment or punishment
leonine like a lion
lethal deadly
lethargic drowsy; dull; N. lethargy: state of sluggishness and inactivity
levee earthen or stone embankment to prevent flooding; CF. raise
levitate rise and float in the air (especially by magical means); CF. light
levity lack of seriousness or steadiness; frivolity; lightness of manner
levy impose (a fine); collect (a payment); impose or collect (a tax); Ex. levy a tax on tobacco
lewd lustful
lexicographer compiler of a dictionary; CF. lexicography: work of compiling a dictionary
lexicon dictionary
liability drawback; handicap; debts; obligation; responsibility; condition of being liable; ADJ. liable: likely; responsible (for paying)
liaison contact that keeps parties in communication; communication between groups; one that maintains communication; go-between; secret love affair; V. liaise: keep a connection
libel defamatory written statement; act of writing something that smears a person's character; V. ADJ. libelous
libertine debauched person; dissolute or licentious person; rou\'e; CF. free
libidinous lustful
libido psychic and emotional energy or urges behind human activity; sexual desire
libretto text of an opera or oratorio; CF. book
license official or legal permission; latitude of action or speech; excessive freedom that causes harm or damage; V.
licentious amoral; lewd and lascivious; unrestrained
lien legal claim or right on a property
ligneous like wood
lilliputian extremely small; CF. Lilliput in Gulliver's Travels
limber flexible; supple; pliable; V.
limbo region near heaven or hell where certain souls are kept; prison (slang); Ex. Purgatory and Limbo
limn draw; outline; describe; CF. line ?
limp walk lamely; ADJ: lacking firmness; weak
limpid crystal clear
lineage descent; ancestry
lineaments features especially of the face; distinctive shape or contour of the face; CF. line
linger loiter or dawdle; be slow in leaving; delay going; continue or persist; be slow to disappear; Ex. The smell lingered for days.
linguistic pertaining to language
lionize treat (a person) as a celebrity
liquidate settle accounts; pay off (a debt); clear up; eliminate; kill or abolish
list tilt (as of a ship); lean over (to one side)
listless lacking in spirit or energy; languid
litany supplicatory prayer; prayer in which the priest calls out and the people replies in the same words
lithe flexible; supple; CF. limber
litigation lawsuit; N. litigant: one party in a lawsuit; V. litigate
litotes understatement for emphasis; Ex. ``not bad(=pretty good)''
litter waste material thrown away (as bits of paper scattered untidily); V: cover untidily with scattered litter
livid lead-colored; black and blue (as from a bruise); ashen; enraged; extremely angry
loath reluctant; unwilling; disinclined; Ex. Romeo and Juliet were both loath for him to go.
loathe detest; ADJ. loathsome: arousing loathing; offensive; Ex. loathsome smell
lode metal-bearing vein(long deposit of an ore)
loft room or space under the roof; attic
lofty very high
log record of a voyage or flight; record of day-to-day activities; section of a trunk; V.
loiter hang about/around; stand idly about; linger
loll lounge about
longevity long life; long duration
lookout act of keeping watch; high place commanding a wide view; person who keeps watch
loom appear or take shape (usually in an enlarged, indistinct, or distorted form); Ex. The shadow of the gallows loomed threateningly. N: apparatus for making thread into cloth
lope gallop slowly
lopsided heavier or larger on one side than the other; Ex. lopsided way of walking
loquacious talkative; N. loquacity
lot object used in making a determination at random; fate; piece of land
lottery contest in which winners are selected in a drawing of lots
lounge stand, sit, or lie in a lazy, relaxed way
lout clumsy person; ADJ. loutish; CF. from countrysides ?
low moo; make the sound of a cow
lubricate apply a lubricant to; N. lubricant: substance that reduces friction
lucid easily understood; clear; intelligible; N. lucidity
lucrative profitable; producing wealth
lucre money; profit; Ex. filthy lucre
ludicrous laughable; ridiculous; trifling
lugubrious mournful; sorrowful
lull moment of calm; period of reduced activity; Ex. a lull in the rain; V: cause to become less active; cause to sleep or rest; Ex. lull the opponents into a false sense of security; CF. lullaby
lumber move heavily or clumsily; Ex. The bear lumbered through the woods; N: timber
lumen unit of light energy (one candle's worth)
luminary celebrity (in a specific field); dignitary; object that gives light (as a celestial body)
luminous shining (esp. in the dark); issuing light; Ex. luminous paint/road signs
lunar pertaining to the moon
lunatic insane; Ex. lunatic asylum
lurid wild; sensational; graphic; gruesome; horrible; Ex. lurid details of the murder
lurk stealthily lie in waiting; slink; exist unperceived
luscious pleasing to taste or smell; delicious
lush (of a plant or grass) growing very well
lust intense sexual desire; intense eagerness; V.
luster shine; gloss (of a polished surface)
lustrous shining; brilliant; Ex. lustrous hair
luxuriant abundant; growing healthily and in large amounts; excessively ornate; rich and splendid; fertile; Ex. luxuriant forests/prose; CF. luxurious, luxuriate
luxuriate take pleasure in great comfort
macabre gruesome; grisly; ghastly; CF. of death
mace ceremonial staff used as a symbol of authority; clublike medieval weapon
macerate soften by soaking in liquid; waste away; Ex. macerate powdered wood to make paper
Machiavellian crafty; double-dealing; of the political doctrine of Machiavelli, which holds that craft and deceit are justified in pursuing political power
machinations evil schemes or plots; schemes or plots to achieve an evil end; V. machinate
maculated spotted; stained; CF. immaculate
madrigal pastoral song; song for several singers without instruments
maelstrom violent whirlpool; violent or tublent situation; CF. stream
magisterial authoritative; imperious; commanding; of a magistrate; Ex. magisterial study of Roman law; Ex. magisterial manner
magistrate official with power to administer the law
magnanimity generosity; ADJ. magnanimous: generous
magnate person of prominence or influence; powerful or influential person (in business or industry); Ex. oil magnate
magniloquent boastful; pompous
magnitude greatness (in size or extent); extent
maim mutilate; injure lastingly; disable; cripple; Ex. maimed for life
makeshift temporary expedient or substitute (in the case of urgent need); Ex. makeshift shelter
maladroit clumsy; not skillful; awkward; bungling
malady illness
malaise uneasiness; vague feeling of ill health (without any particular pain or appearance of disease)
malapropism comic misuse of a word; CF. Mrs. Malaprop
malapropos inappropriate; ADV.
malcontent person dissatisfied with existing state of affairs; discontented person; ADJ: discontented
malediction curse
malefactor evildoer; criminal
maleficient doing evil; N. maleficience
malevolent wishing evil; exhibiting ill will; N. malevolence
malfeasance wrongdoing; misconduct (by a public official)
malicious hateful; spiteful; expressing malice; N. malice: desire to harm others; spite
malign speak evil of; bad-mouth(criticize spitefully); defame; ADJ: harmful; Ex. malign influence
malignant tending to cause death; highly injurious; aggressively malevolent; Ex. malignant tumor
malingerer one who feigns illness to escape duty; V. malinger: feign illness to avoid work
malleable (of a metal) capable of being shaped by pounding(beating); pliable; (of someone) impressionable(easily influenced); easily controlled; tractable
malodorous foul-smelling
mammal vertebrate animal whose female suckles its young
mammoth gigantic; enormous
manacle restrain; handcuff; N.
mandate order; charge; authoritative command; power to govern another country; power to given to a government; region under administration; V: give a mandate to; place under a mandate; Ex. mandated territory
mandatory obligatory; compulsory; of a mandate
maneuver(manoeuver) strategic military or naval movement (done for training purposes); carefully planned process; stratagem; V: carry out a military maneuver; use maneuvers in gaining an end
mange skin disease (esp. of domestic animals) marked by loss of hair
mangle tear or cut to pieces; mutilate or disfigure; Ex. badly mangled bodies
mangy shabby; wretched; suffering from mange; of bad appearance
maniacal raging mad; insane; N. maniac: insane person; CF. mania: disorder of the mind; intense enthusiasm
manifest evident; visible; obvious; V: show plainly
manifestation outward demonstration; manifesting; indication of the presence of something; Ex. manifestation of his pronounced musical bent
manifesto public declaration of principles; statement of policy
manifold many in number or kind; numerous; varied
manipulate operate with one's hands; control or play upon (people, forces, etc.) artfully; maneuver; Ex. how to manipulate publicity and men; ADJ. manipulative
mannered affected; not natural; Ex. mannered way of speech
mannerism distinctive behavioral trait; affected style in art (according to a set of styles)
mantle loose sleeveless outer garment; cloak; something that covers or envelops; the layer of the earth between the crust and the core
manumit emancipate; free from slavery or bondage
mar spoil the appearance of
maraud move in search of plunder; Ex. marauding army
margin border; room; allowance beyond what is needed; Ex. margin of safety
marginal of a margin; barely within a limit; Ex. marginal effect/writing ability
marital pertaining to marriage
maritime bordering on(adjacent to) the sea; nautical; of the ships or the sea; Ex. Maritime Provinces
marked noticeable; targeted for vengeance or attack; Ex. marked improvement/man
maroon leave helpless on a deserted island or coast; ADJ. red brown
marred damaged; disfigured; V. mar: spoil; disfigure
marrow soft fatty tissue that fills most bone cavities and is the source of blood cells
marshal put in order; guide ceremoniously to the correct place; Ex. marshal the children into the museum; N: military officer; official
marsupial one of a family of mammals that nurse their offspring in a pouch(pocket of skin or leather); CF. kangaroo, opossum, wombat
martial warlike; of war; Ex. martial art/law
martinet strict disciplinarian; person who demands total obedience to rules and orders; CF. Jean Martinet
martyr one who voluntarily suffers death for his or her religion or cause; great sufferer; Ex. martyr to his rheumatism
mash crush into mash; convert into mash; N: mixture of ground grain and nutrients fed to livestock and fowl
masochist person who enjoys his own pain; CF. masochism
mason one who builds or works with stone or brick; N. masonry: work of a mason; stonework or brickwork
masquerade wear a mask or disguise; pretend; N: costume party or ball at which masks are worn; pretense; disguise
mass Christian religious ceremony; CF. Mass: ceremony of the Eucharist
masticate chew
mat not shiny; matte; having a dull finish; N: flat piece of material used as a floor covering; V.
materialism preoccupation with physical comforts and things; excessive regard for worldly concerns (rather than spiritual matters)
maternal motherly; N. maternity: motherhood
matin\'ee(matinee) dramatic or musical performance given in the afternoon
matriarch woman who rules a family or larger social group
matriculate enroll (in college or graduate school); CF. matrix
matrimony state of being married
matrix point of origin; array of numbers or algebraic symbols; mold or die; Ex. the matrix of Western civilization
maudlin effusively sentimental
maul handle roughly; batter; injure by beating; Ex. mauled by his overexcited fans; N: heavy long-handled hammer
mausoleum monumental tomb; large stately tomb; CF. Mausolos
mauve pale purple
maverick rebel; nonconformist (in a group)
mawkish mushy(sentimental) and gushy; icky-sticky sentimental; excessively and objectionably sentimental
maxim proverb; truth pithily stated
mayhem injury to body; crime of willfully maiming or crippling a person; violent disorder; Ex. mayhem in the zoo; CF. maim
meager scanty; inadequate
mealymouthed indirect in speech (when something unpleasant must be said); hypocritical; evasive
meander wind or turn in its course; follow a winding or turning course; move aimlessly and idly
meddlesome interfering; V. meddle: interfere
mediate settle a dispute through the services of an outsider; act as an intermediary; produce by mediating; Ex. mediate a cease-fire
mediocre ordinary; commonplace; neither good nor bad
meditation reflection; thought; V. meditate
medium element that is a creature's natural environment; nutrient setting in which microorganisms are cultivated; appropriate occupation or means of expression; channel of communication; compromise; middle position between extremes; intervening substance throug
medley mixture
meek submissive; patient and long-suffering
megalomania mania for doing grandiose things; mental disorder characterized by delusions of wealth, power, or importance
melancholy gloomy; morose; blue; N. ADJ. melancholic; CF. melancholia
melee fight
mellifluous (of words or a voice) sweetly or smoothly flowing; melodious; having a pleasant tune
memento token; reminder of the past; keepsake; Ex. memento of your visit
memoir memoirs; autobiography; biography
memorial something, such as a monument or holiday, intended to honor the memory of a person or event; ADJ: commemorative
memorialize commemorate
menace threat; V: threaten
menagerie collection of wild animals on exhibition; zoo
mendacious lying; habitually dishonest; N. mendacity
mendicant beggar; ADJ: living as a beggar
menial suitable for servants; lowly; mean; N: someone who does menial work (esp. servant in a house)
mentor counselor; teacher
mercantile concerning trade or merchants
mercenary motivated solely by money or gain; N.
mercurial capricious; quick and changing; fickle; containing the element mercury; Ex. mercurial temper; CF. mood
meretricious flashy; tawdry; attractive on the surface but of no real value; Ex. metericious argument/jewel; CF. prostitute
merger combination (of two business corporations); act of merging
merit deserve; ADJ. meritorious: deserving reward or praise
mesmerize hypnotize; N. mesmerism; CF. Franz Mesmer
metallurgical pertaining to the art of removing metals from ores; N. metallurgy: science that deals with extracting metals from ores
metamorphosis change of form; Ex. metamorphosis of caterpillar to butterfly; V. metamorphose: change by metamorphosis
metaphor implied comparison; CF. simile
metaphysical pertaining to speculative philosophy; of metaphysics; N. metaphysics: branch of philosophy that examines the nature of reality
mete measure; distribute; administer; Ex. mete out justice/punishment
meteoric like a meteor; swift; momentarily brilliant; Ex. meteoric rise to fame; N. meteor
meter arrangement of words in the form of poetry (by accentual rhythm)
methodical systematic; N. method: systematic method of procedure
meticulous excessively careful (with great attention to detail); painstaking; scrupulous
metrical metric; written in the form of poetry; Ex. metrical translation of Homer
metropolis large city
mettle courage (to continue bravely in spite of difficulties); spirit; ADJ. mettlesome
miasma swamp gas; heavy vaporous atmosphere often emanating from decaying matter; pervasive corrupting influence; noxious atmosphere or influence
microcosm small representative world; world in miniature; Ex. microcosm of English society
migrant changing its habitat; wandering; Ex. migrant birds/workers; N: one that migrates
migratory wandering; V. migrate: move from one region and settle in another; move periodically from one region to another
milieu social environment; means of expression; Ex. feel out of one's milieu; Ex. His proper milieu is watercolor.
militant combative; bellicose; N.
militate work against; Ex. militate against the chances of promotion; CF. serve as a soldier
militia army composed of ordinary citizens rather than professional soldiers
millennium thousand-year period (as in the New Testament); hoped-for period of happiness and prosperity
mime pantomime(act without dialogue); mimicry; mimer; V: mimic; pantomime
mimicry imitation
minatory menacing; threatening
mincing affectedly dainty(delicate); V. mince: cut (esp. meat) into very small pieces; walk with exaggerated primness; walk in an unnatural way, taking little short steps; Ex. The actor minced across the stage; CF. mincemeat; CF. mincer
mingle mix together in close association
miniature small model; small painting; ADJ: small
minion servile dependent; obsequious follower
minuscule(miniscule) extremely small
minute extremely small; CF. minutes: official record of the proceedings at a meeting
minutiae petty or trivial details; CF. minutia
mirage unreal reflection; optical illusion
mire entangle; stick in swampy ground; stick or sink in mire; N: bog; deep mud; Ex. sucked deeper into the mire
mirth merriment; laughter
misadventure mischance; ill luck; Ex. death by misadventure
misanthrope one who hates mankind; misanthropist
misapprehension error; misunderstanding; V. misapprehend
miscellaneous made up of a variety of parts
miscellany mixture of writings on various subjects; collection of various items
mischance ill luck
mischief behavior (of children) causing trouble with no serious harm; damage; harm; Ex. mischief to the crops; ADJ. mischievous: causing mischief; playfully troublesome
misconduct immoral behavior; bad management; V.
misconstrue interpret incorrectly; misinterpret; misjudge
miscreant wretch; wrongdoer; villain; Ex. kindness to the miscreant; CF. believe
misdemeanor minor crime; misdeed; wrongdoing
miserly stingy; mean
misgivings doubts
mishap unfortunate accident
misnomer wrong or improper name; incorrect designation
misogamy hatred of marriage
misogynist hater of woman; CF. misogyny
missile object to be thrown or projected
missive letter; written statement; CF. sent
mite very small object or insect-like creature; small coin
mitigate appease; moderate; make or become less in force or intensity
mnemonic pertaining to memory; assisting the memory; N: device, such as as formula or rhyme, used as a mnemonic aid
mobile movable; not fixed; N. mobility
mock ridicule; deride; imitate often in derision
mode prevailing style; current fashion; manner; way of doing something; Ex. in the latest mode; Ex. simple mode of life
modicum limited quantity; small amount; Ex. He does not have a modicum of sense; CF. moderate
modish fashionable; conforming to the current fashion
modulate tone down in intensity; change the intensity or tone of; regulate; change from one musical key to another; Ex. modulate from E to G
mogul powerful person; Ex. oil moguls; CF. Mogol, Moghul; CF. Mongolian
molecule the smallest particle (one or more atoms) of a substance that has all the properties of that substance
mollify soothe an angry person
mollycoddle pamper; coddle; baby; indulge excessively
molt(moult) periodically shed or cast off hairs or feathers (for replacement by a new growth)
molten melted; Ex. molten lava
momentous very important; N. moment; CF. momentary
momentum quantity of motion of a moving body; impetus; moving force
monarchy government under a single ruler
monastic related to monks or monasteries; removed from worldly concerns
monetary pertaining to money
mongrel plant or animal (esp. a dog) of mixed breed; ADJ.
monochromatic having only one color
monochrome painting in only one color; ADJ.
monogram design composed of one or more initials of a name; V.
monograph scholarly article
monolithic solidly uniform; unchangeable; unyielding; N. monolith: large block of stone
monotheism belief in one God
monotony sameness leading to boredom; monotonousness; ADJ. monotonous; CF. monotone
monumental massive; impressively large; built as a monument
moodiness fits of depression or gloom; ADJ. moody: given to changeable moods; subject to periods of depression; gloomy CF. mood: | state of mind or emotion
moratorium legal delay of payment or action; Ex. declare moratorium on the building of new houses
morbid given to unwholesome or unhealthy thought; moody; characteristic of disease; Ex. morbid curiosity; N. morbidity; CF. disease
mordant biting; sarcastic; stinging; (apprec.) incisive; cutting; Ex. mordant pen/wit
mores conventions; moral standards; moral customs
morgue mortuary; place where bodies are kept before burial or cremation
moribund dying; at the point of death; CF. death
morose ill-humored; sullen; sullenly melancholy
mortar vessel in which substances are crushed with a pestle
mortician undertaker; CF. death
mortify humiliate by embarassing excessively; shame; punish the flesh; discipline (one's body) by self-denial; Ex. mortified by her blunder; Ex. mortify the flesh; CF. cause to die
mosaic picture made of small colorful inlaid tiles; ADJ.
mote small speck (esp. of dust)
motif theme; recurrent thematic element in a musical or literary work; single or repeated pattern; figure
motility ability to move spontaneously; ADJ. motile: moving spontaneously
motley multi-colored (as of a garment worn by a jester); mixed; heterogeneous; CF. jester: one who jests (as a paid fool at medieval courts)
mottled blotched in coloring; spotted; Ex. mottled face; V. mottle: mark with blotches of different colors
motto brief statement used to express a principle
mountebank charlatan; boastful pretender
muddle confuse; mix up confusedly; N: state of confusion
muggy (of weather) warm and damp
mulct defraud a person of something; swindle; Ex. mulct the boy of his legacy
multifarious varied; greatly diversified; Ex. multifarious activities
multiform having many forms
multilingual having many languages; fluent in several languages
multiplicity state of being numerous or multiple; large number; Ex. multiplicity of details; ADJ. multiple: of more than one element
mundane worldly as opposed to spiritual; everyday; of the ordinary; Ex. mundane existence; CF. world
munificent very generous in giving; Ex. munificent benefactor; N. munificience
mural wall painting
murky dark and gloomy; thick with fog; vague; Ex. murky night/fog; N. murk: partial or complete darkness; gloom
murmur low, indistinct, continuous sound; V. CF. mumble
muse ponder at length; N: source of inspiration (esp. of a poet)
musky having the odor of musk; N. musk: odorous substance secreted by an Asian deer
muster gather; assemble (troops); Ex. muster up one's strength for the ordeal; N.
musty stale (in odor or taste); spoiled by age; CF. moist
mutablility ability to change in form; fickleness; ADJ. mutable: able to change; fickle; CF. mutate; CF. mutant
mute silent; without speech; not pronounced; unable to speak; N: one who is incapable of speech; V: soften the sound, color, shade of
muted silent; muffled; toned down; Ex. muted traffic noise
mutilate maim; injure lastingly; deprive of a limb or an essential part
mutinous unruly; rebellious; Ex. mutinous teenagers; N. mutiny: open rebellion; CF. mutineer
mutter utter (complaining words) indistinctly in low tones
myopic nearsighted; lacking foresight; N. myopia
myriad very large number; ADJ. CF. ten thousand
mystic of hidden meaning and spiritual power; Ex. mystic ceremonies; N. CF. mysticism
nadir lowest point; point on the celestial sphere diametrically opposite the zenith
naivet\'e(naivety) quality of being unsophisticated; simplicity; artlessness; gullibility; ADJ. naive(na\"ive): ingenuous; lacking worldliness; simple; credulous
narcissist conceited person; N. narcissism; CF. narcissus
narrative related to telling a story; N: narrated account; story; V. narrate: tell (a story); CF. narration
nascent incipient; coming into being or existence; Ex. nascent ability in music
natal connected with birth; CF. prenatal; CF. postnatal
natation swimming
natty neatly or smartly dressed; dapper; smart; Ex. natty dresser
nausea feeling of sickness and desire to vomit; disgust; CF. seasickness
nauseate cause to become sick; fill with disgust; fill nausea
nauseous causing nausea; feeling nausea
nautical pertaining to ships or navigation
navigable (of a body of water) wide and deep enough to allow ships to pass through; (of a ship or aircraft) able to be steered
nebula diffuse mass of interstellar dust or gas; galaxy
nebulous vague; hazy; cloudy; of a nebula; Ex. nebulous proposal
necromancy black magic; sorcery; dealings with the dead; art that professes to communicate with the spirits of the dead so as to predict the future; CF. necromancer; CF. necro+divination; CF. necro-: death; Ex. necropolis
nectar drink of the gods; sweet liquid collected by bees
nefarious very wicked
negate cancel out; nullify; cause to have no effect; deny; N. negation
negligence neglect; failure to take reasonable care; ADJ. negligent: neglectful; lax; not taking enough care
negligible so small, trifling, or unimportant as to be easily disregarded
nemesis someone seeking revenge; source of downfall or ruin; CF. Nemesis
neologism new or newly coined word or phrase
neophyte recent convert; new member of a religious group; beginner; CF. plant
nepotism favoritism (to a relative); CF. nephew
nether lower; Ex. nether garments/regions
nettle irritate; annoy; vex; ADJ. nettlesome
nexus connection
nib beak(bill); pen point
nicety precision; accuracy; minute distinction or difference; Ex. to a nicety: exactly; precisely; Ex. distinguish between niceties
niggardly meanly stingy; parsimonious; N. niggard: stingy person
niggle spend too much time on minor points (esp. when finding fault); find fault; Ex. niggle over details; ADJ. niggling
nihilist one who considers traditional beliefs to be groundless and existence meaningless; absolute skeptic; revolutionary terrorist; CF. nihilism: belief that nothing has meaning or value; belief that destruction of existing political or social institutions is n
nimble quick in movement; agile; quick in understanding; Ex. nimble climber/mind
nip snip off; stop something's growth or development; bite; make numb with cold; Ex. nip the plan; Ex. A guard dog nipped the postman; Ex. fingers nipped by the extreme chill
nirvana in Buddhist teachings, the ideal state in which the individual loses himself in the attainment of an impersonal beatitude
nocturnal done or active at night; Ex. nocturnal animals/raids; CF. nocturne
noisome foul smelling; very unpleasant; unwholesome
nomadic wandering; N. nomad: tribe who migrates from place to place
nomenclature terminology(system of specialized words); system of names or naming things
nominal in name only; of a name; trifling; (of a sum of money) very small; CF. nominate: propose as a candidate; appoint
nonchalance indifference; lack of concern; composure; ADJ. nonchalant: unconcerned; cool; indifferent; Ex. nonchalant attitude to his debts
noncommittal neutral; refusing commitment to a particular opinion; unpledged; undecided
nondescript undistinctive; ordinary; ordinary-looking; Ex. nondescript fellow in a crowd
nonentity person of no importance; nonexistence
nonplus put at a loss; bring to a halt by confusion; perplex; CF. no more
nonsense speech or writing with no meaning; foolish behavior or language; Ex. make (a) nonsense of: spoil; cause to fail
noose loop formed in a rope
nostalgia homesickness; longing for the past; Ex. nostalgia for the clothes of 1920s; ADJ. nostalgic
nostrum questionable medicine; quack medicine; CF. our (remedy)
notable conspicuous; worthy of note; remarkable; important; distinguished; noted
notch V-shaped cut in a surface; V.
notoriety disrepute; ill fame
nourish provide with food necessary for life and growth
nourishment something that nourishes; food
nova star that suddenly becomes much brighter and then returns to its original brightness
novelty something new; newness; ADJ. novel: new; original
novice beginner
noxious harmful; CF. obnoxious
nuance shade of slight difference in meaning or color; subtle distinction
nubile marriageable; of marriageable age; CF. connubial
nugatory worthless; futile
nullify make invalid; make null; invalidate
numismatist person who collects coins; N. numismatics: study or collection of money, coins, and medals
nuptial related to marriage or the wedding ceremony; N. nuptials: wedding ceremony
nurse suckle; take care of (as a nurse); bear in mind; Ex. nursing mother; Ex. nurse a hope/grudge against someone
nurture nourish; feed; educate; rear; care for while it is growing or developing; foster; cultivate; N: something that nourishes; rearing
nutrient nourishing substance; ADJ: providing nourishment
nutrition process of nourishing or being nourished; CF. malnutrition
nutritious providing nourishment
oaf stupid awkward person; CF. elf
oath solemn promise; blasphemous use of sacred words to express strong feelings; swear-word; Ex. ``For Christ's sake''
oatmeal crushed oats used for making porridge
obdurate stubborn; refusing to change one's belief
obeisance bow (to show respect and obedience)
obelisk tall column tapering(becoming gradually narrower toward the end) and ending in a pyramid
obese excessively fat; N. obesity
obfuscate confuse; muddle; cause confusion; make needlessly complex; make so confused as to be difficult to understand
obituary death notice (esp. in a newspaper); ADJ.
objective not influenced by emotions; fair; N: goal; aim
obligatory binding; required; compulsory; V. oblige: constrain; make grateful; do a favor; accommodate
oblique indirect; slanting (deviating from the perpendicular or from a straight line); Ex. oblique reference
obliterate destroy completely; wipe out; Ex. obliterate the village
oblivion obscurity; condition of being completely forgotten; forgetfulness
oblivious inattentive or unmindful; unaware; wholly absorbed; forgetful(having the habit of forgetting)
obloquy slander; disgrace; infamy
obnoxious offensive; disagreeable; Ex. obnoxious smell
obscure dark; vague; unclear; not well known; Ex. obscure meaning/village; V: darken; cover; make unclear; Ex. obscure the moon/meaning
obsequious slavishly attentive; servile; full of servile compliance; sycophantic
obsequy funeral ceremony
obsessive related to thinking about something constantly; of an obsession; preoccupying; N. obsession: compulsive preoccupation with a fixed idea; compulsive idea; V. obsess: preoccupy the mind of excessively
obsidian black volcanic rock
obsolete outmoded; no longer used
obstetrician physician specializing in delivery(assisting in giving birth) of babies; N. obstetrics; CF. midwife
obstinate stubborn; hard to control or treat; Ex. obstinate cough; N. obstinacy
obstreperous boisterous; noisy and uncontrollable
obtrude push (oneself or one's ideas) forward or intrude; impose (oneself or one's ideas) on others; butt in; stick out or extrude; thrust out; Ex. obtrude A on B; ADJ. obtrusive; N. obtrusion; CF. unobtrusive
obtuse blunt; not sharp; stupid; slow in understanding
obviate make unnecessary; get rid of; Ex. obviate the need
Occident the West
occlude shut; close; obstruct; Ex. A blood clot occluded an artery.
occult mysterious; secret; supernatural; beyond human comprehension; CF. mysterious to human ?; OP. bare
oculist physician who specializes in treatment of the eyes
odds chances; probability; disagreement; Ex. The odds are that it will rain. Ex. at odds with
odious arousing strong dislike; hateful(causing hatred); vile
odium detestation; quality of being odious; hatefulness; disrepute (resulting from hateful conduct)
odoriferous giving off an odor
odorous having an odor
odyssey long, eventful, adventurous journey
offensive attacking; insulting; distasteful; V. offend: violate; hurt the feelings of; N. offense: offending; violating of a moral or social code; crime; attack; Ex. first offense
offhand casual; done without prior thought or preparation
officious meddlesome; excessively pushy in offering one's services; overly eager in offering unwanted services or advices; Ex. officious bellboy
ogle look at amorously; make eyes at; Ex. old men ogling young girls
olfactory concerning the sense of smell
oligarchy government by a privileged few
ominous threatening; of an evil omen
omnipotent all-powerful; having unlimited power
omnipresent universally present; ubiquitous
omniscient all-knowing
omnivorous eating both plant and animal food; devouring everything
onerous burdensome
onomatopoeia words formed in imitation of natural sounds
onslaught vicious assault; fierce attack; Ex. unexpected onslaught of the enemy
onus burden; responsibility
ooze (of a thick liquid) pass or flow slowly; N: mud or thick liquid as at the bottom of a river
opalescent iridescent; lustrous; like an opal; N. opalescence
opaque dark; not transparent; N. opacity
opiate medicine to induce sleep or deaden pain; something that relieves emotions or causes inaction; sleep-producing drug containing opium
opportune timely; well-chosen
opportunist individual who sacrifices principles for expediency by taking advantage of circumstances; N. opportunism
opprobrium infamy; disgrace arising from shameful conduct; vilification(slander); scorn; contempt; Ex. opprobrium hurled against him; ADJ. opprobrious: expressing contempt; shameful or infamous
optician maker and seller of eyeglasses
optimist person who looks on the bright side; N. optimism
optimum most favorable; optimal; N: most favorable condition
optional not compulsory; left to one's choice; N. option: act of choosing; choice; freedom or power to choose; something available as a choice; Ex. have no option; Ex. two options
optometrist one who fits glasses to remedy visual defects
opulence extreme wealth; luxuriousness; abundance; ADJ. opulent: possessing great wealth; abundant
opus work (esp. musical composition); Ex. magnum opus: masterpiece; CF. opera
oracular of an oracle; prophetic; uttered as if with divine authority; mysterious or ambiguous; hard to understand; N. oracle: wiser person; prophecy made by an oracle
orator public speaker
oratorio dramatic poem set to music; long musical work with singing but without acting; CF. cantata
ordain decree or command; grant holy orders; predestine; install as a minister, priest, or rabbi; N. ordainment; CF. ordination
ordeal severe trial or affliction; difficult experience; trial(test of patience or endurance); affliction
ordinance decree; authoritative order
ordination ceremony conferring holy orders; ceremony of ordaining a priest
orgy wild drunken revelry; unrestrained indulgence in an activity; Ex. orgy of shopping
orient get one's bearings; adjust; make familiar with a situation; orientate
orientation act of finding oneself in society; orienting
orifice mouthlike opening; small opening (esp. to a cavern or passage of the body); CF. mouth
ornate excessively or elaborately decorated
ornithologist scientific student of birds; N. ornithology: scientific study of birds
orthodox traditional; (of someone) conservative in belief; adhering to an established doctrine
orthography correct spelling; CF. ortho-: straight; correct; Ex. orthodontics
oscillate vibrate pendulumlike; waver
osseous made of bone; bony
ossify change or harden into bone; become hard and unchanging in one's ideas
ostensible apparent; appearing as such; professed(pretended); pretended; Ex. ostensible purpose of the expedition
ostentatious showy; trying to attract attention; pretentious; N. ostentation: showy display
ostracize banish from a group; exclude from public favor; ban; Ex. His friends ostracized him. N. ostracism
oust expel; drive out; force out; N. ouster: ousting
outcast one that has been excluded from a society; ADJ.
outfit clothing or equipment for a special purpose; Ex. cowboy outfit
outgoing sociable; eager to mix socially with others
outlandish bizzare; peculiar; unconventional
outlaw fugitive from the law (excluded from legal protection); V: declare (someone) to be an outlaw; deprive of the protection of the law; declare illegal; Ex. Drinking has been outlawed.
outlook point of view; view from a particular place; expectation for the future; prospect; Ex. outlook on life; Ex. pleasing outlook; Ex. weather outlook
outmoded no longer in fashion or use; no longer stylish; old-fashioned
outrage act of extreme violence or viciousness; resentful anger; V: commit an outrage on; produce anger in; ADJ. outrageous: offensive
outskirts fringes; outer borders (as of a city); Ex. outskirts of Boston
outspoken candid; blunt
outstrip outrun; surpass; outdo
outwit outsmart; defeat by behaving more cleverly
ovation enthusiastic applause
overbearing bossy; domineering and arrogant; decisively important; Ex. overbearing manner/importance; V. overbear: dominate
overblown inflated; exaggerated
oversee watch over and direct; supervise; N. oversight: unintentional failure to notice or do something; supervision
overt open to view; public; not secret; CF. covert
overthrow topple; N.
overture musical introduction to a long musical piece; first offer or proposal (to begin talks in the hope of reaching an agreement); Ex. overtures for peace
overturn turn over; capsize; topple
overweening arrogant; presumptuous
overwhelm (of water) cover completely; defeat completely by much greater force; Ex. overwhelmed by grief
overwrought nervous or excited; extremely agitated; hysterical; wrought-up; CF. wrought: made or done
ovoid egg-shaped; CF. ovum; CF. ovulate
pachyderm thick-skinned animal
pacifist one opposed to force; antimilitarist; ADJ. N. pacifism: opposition to war as a means of resolving disputes
pacify soothe; make calm or quiet; subdue; bring peace to
padre chaplain (in the armed forces)
paean song of praise or joy; Ex. paeans celebrating the victory
painstaking taking pains; showing hard work; taking great care; very careful and through
palatable agreeable; pleasing to the taste
palate roof of the mouth; sense of the taste
palatial of or suitable for a palace; magnificent
paleontology study of prehistoric life or fossils; CF. paleo-: ancient or prehistoric; Ex. paleography: study of ancient written documents
palette board on which painter mixes pigments(coloring matters)
palimpsest parchment or piece of writing material used for second time after original writing has been erased
pall become boring; grow tiresome
pallet small poor bed; Ex. straw pallet
palliate ease pain (without curing); make less severe or offensive (a crime or illness)
pallid pale; wan; Ex. pallid complexion
palm conceal in the palm of the hand; palm off: pass off; Ex. palm off some bad oranges onto the lady/the painting as a real Renoir
palpable tangible; (of something bad) easily perceptible; obvious; Ex. palpable blunder
palpitate throb; beat rapidly; flutter; tremble; Ex. Her heart began to palpitate.
paltry insignificant; petty; trifling; contemptible; Ex. paltry sum; CF. trash
pan criticize harshly
panacea cure-all; remedy for all diseases
panache flair; manner of doing things without any difficulty (causing admiration); flamboyance; bunch of feathers (on a helmet); Ex. with great panache;
pandemic widespread; affecting the majority of people; N: pandemic disease; CF. all people
Pandemonium wild tumult(commotion); wild noisy disorder; CF. Paradise Lost
pander cater to (the low desires of others)
panegyric formal praise; encomium; Ex. I don't deserve such panegyrics.
pang sudden sharp feeling of pain
panoramic denoting an unobstructed and comprehensive view; N. panorama: unbroken view of a wide area
pantomime acting without dialogue; V.
papyrus ancient paper made from stem of papyrus plant
parable short simple story teaching a moral
paradigm model; example that serves as a model; pattern; list of all the inflectional forms of a word
paradox something apparently contradictory in nature (that may nonetheless be true); statement that looks false but is actually correct
paragon model of perfection; Ex. paragon of virtue
parallel similar; analogous; corresponding; N: parallel line; person or thing that is parallel (to another); similarity; Ex. know of no parallel to the case; Ex. without parallel; V: be similar to; make parallel; Ex. Your experience parallels mine; CF. unparallel
parallelism state of being parallel; similarity; analogy
parameter limit; independent variable; Ex. parameters of the problem; Ex. within the parameters of the budget
paramount foremost in importance; supreme; CF. para-: beyond; above; Ex. paranormal
paramour illicit lover
paranoia psychosis marked by delusions of grandeur or persecution; N: ADJ: paranoid, paranoiac
paraphernalia equipment; odds and ends used in a particular activity; personal belongings; Ex. photographic paraphernalia; CF. married woman's property exclusive of her dowry
paraphrase restate a passage in one's own words while retaining thought of author; N: restatement of a text in other words
parasite animal or plant living on another; toady; sycophant; CF. para-: beside
parched extremely dry; very thirsty; V. parch: make or become extremely dry (by exposure to heat)
parchment writing material made from the skin of a sheep or goat
pare cut away the outer covering or skin of (with a knife); trim; Ex. pare apples/expenses
pariah social outcast; Ex. Mariah the pariah
parish area in the care of a single priest and served by one main church
parity equality; close resemblance; CF. disparate
parlance language; manner of speaking; idiom; Ex. in legal/common parlance
parley conference (between opponents); CF. speak
parochial narrow in scope or outlook; provincial; related to parishes
parody humorous imitation; spoof; takeoff; travesty; V.
paroxysm fit or attack of pain, laughter, rage; sudden outburst
parquet floor made of wood strips inlaid in a mosaic like matter; CF. strip: long narrow piece
parry ward off a blow; deflect; Ex. He parried the unwelcome question very skillfully; N.
parsimony stinginess; excessive frugality; ADJ. parsimonious
partial incomplete; favoring one side over another; having a liking for something
partiality state of being partial; inclination; favorable bias; special fondness; preference
partisan one-sided; prejudiced; committed to a party (with dislike of any others); N: strong supporter of a party; guerrilla
partition divide into parts
parvenu upstart; newly rich person
pass\'e old-fashioned; past the prime
pass_off present falsely; represent falsely to be
passive not active; acted upon; receiving an action without acting in return; accepting without resistance
paste smooth viscous mixture as of flour(powder made by crushing grain) and water (used as an adhesive); V: cause to adhere by applying paste
pastiche imitation of another's style in musical composition or in writing; work of art openly imitating the works of other artists
pastoral rural; of rural life; idyllic; of a pastor
pastry paste of flour and water (eaten when baked)
patent obvious; easily seen; open for the public to read; of or protected by a patent; Ex. patent to everyone; N.
pathetic causing sadness, compassion, pity; touching
pathological pertaining to disease; N. pathology: study of disease
pathos tender sorrow; pity; quality in art or literature that produces these feelings; Ex. pathos that runs through the novel
patina green crust on old bronze works or copper; tone slowly taken by varnished painting
patois local or provincial dialect
patriarch father and ruler of a family or tribe
patrician noble; aristocratic; N: person of high rank; aristocrat; CF. member of the governing classes in ancient Rome; CF. plebian
patrimony property inherited from a father
patronize support; act superior toward; treat in a condescending manner; be a customer of; N. patron: one that supports; regular customer; N. patronage; CF. boycott
paucity scarcity; dearth
pauper very poor person
peccadillo slight offense or fault; CF. sin
pecuniary pertaining to money
pedagogue teacher; CF. child leader
pedagogy teaching; art of education
pedant scholar who overemphasizes book learning, trivial details of learning, or technicalities
pedantic bookish; showing off learning; marked by an excessive ostentatious concern for book learning; N. pedantry
peddle travel about selling (wares); CF. foot
pedestal support or base as for a pillar or statue
pedestrian ordinary; dull; unimaginative(lacking in imagination); going on foot; Ex. pedestrian prose; N.
pediatrician physician specializing in children's diseases; N. pediatrics
pedigree ancestry; lineage
peer one who has equal standing with another; nobleman; V: look intently; N. peerage; CF. peeress
peerless having no equal; incomparable
peevish bad-tempered; irritable; V. peeve: make angry
pejorative (of a word or phrase) suggesting that someone is of little value; negative in connotation; having a belittling effect; Ex. Many women now considers ``housewife'' a pejorative expression, because it patronized them.
pell-mell in confusion; disorderly; Ex. dash pell-mell
pellucid transparent; limpid(crystal clear); clear in meaning; easy to understand
pen fenced enclosure for animals; confining space; Ex. sheep pen; V: confine in a pen; enclose
penance self-imposed punishment for sin; Ex. do penance for one's sins; CF. penitent
penchant strong inclination; strong liking (esp. for something that is disapproved of by other people); Ex. penchant for fast cars
pendant(pendent) hanging down from something; pending; N: ornament (hanging from a necklace etc.)
pending not yet decided or settled; impending; Ex. pending decision; PREP. while awaiting; until; Ex. delay the decision pending his return
pendulous hanging; suspended
penetrate enter into; pierce; permeate; see through; grasp the inner significance of; understand
penitent repentant; N.
penology study of prison management and criminal rehabilitation
pensive dreamily or deeply thoughtful; sadly thoughtful; thoughtful with a hint of sadness; contemplative; CF. think over
penumbra partial shadow (in an eclipse); CF. almost shadow
penury extreme poverty; stinginess; ADJ. penurious: very poor; stingy
peon landless agricultural worker; bond servant; menial worker; N. peonage
perceptive insightful; showing a good ability at perceiving and understanding; aware; wise; of perception
percussion striking one object against another sharply; Ex. percussion instrument; N: striking together of two bodies; sound caused by percussion
perdition damnation; complete ruin; hell
peregrination journey; V. peregrinate
peremptory demanding and leaving no choice; imperative; Ex. peremptory decree/knock
perennial something long-lasting; perennial plant; ADJ: lasting through the year or many years; lasting for a long time; enduring
perfidious treacherous; disloyal; N. perfidy: treachery
perforate pierce; put a hole through
perfunctory done routinely and with little care; superficial; not thorough; lacking interest, care, or enthusiasm; Ex. perfunctory kiss
perigee point of moon's orbit when it is nearest the earth; CF. apogee
perimeter outer boundary; length of the outer boundary; circumference
peripatetic walking about from place to place (to work); moving; Ex. peripatetic school of philosophy
peripheral of a periphery; marginal; outer; of minor importance; not central; Ex. peripheral nerve/interest
periphery outside edge especially of a round surface; perimeter; Ex. periphery of the town
perjury false testimony while under oath; V. perjure oneself: testify falsely under oath
permeable that can be permeated; penetrable; porous; allowing liquids or gas to pass through; V. permeate: spread or flow throughout; charge
permissive allowing much freedom; lenient; Ex. permissive society
pernicious very harmful; deadly; very destructive; Ex. pernicious effect/anemia
peroration conclusion of an oration; perorating; V. perorate: conclude a speech; speak at great length
perpetrate commit an offense; do (something wrong)
perpetual everlasting
perpetuate make perpetual; make something last for a long time; preserve from extinction; N. perpetuity
perquisite(perk) any gain above stipulated salary; Ex. perquisites such as free meals and a car
persevere continue steadily in spite of difficulties
persist continue in existence; last; continue in a course of action in spite of opposition; Ex. persist in/with something; ADJ. persistent
personable attractive (in personality or appearance)
personify represent (an inanimate object) as a person; be the embodiment or perfect example of; Ex. She is evil/patience personified; N. personification
perspicacious (of someone) having insight; penetrating; astute
perspicuity clearness of expression; freedom from ambiguity
perspicuous (of something) plainly expressed; easy to understand; Ex. perspicuous comments
pert (esp. of a girl or young woman) impertinent; forward; trim; jaunty; Ex. pert young miss/hat
pertinacious holding tenaciously to an action; stubborn; persistent
pertinent suitable; to the point; relevant
perturb disturb greatly
peruse read through with care; N. perusal
pervasive spread throughout; V. pervade: (of smells, ideas, feelings) spread throughout; charge; permeate
perverse purposely continuing to do something wrong; stubbornly wrongheaded; perverted; directed away from what is right; wicked and unacceptable; Ex. perverse satisfaction; Ex. Hannibal Lecter in a perverse mood; N. perversity
perversion corruption; turning from right to wrong
pervert corrupt; turn from right to wrong; misuse; Ex. perverted sexual desire/scientific knowledge; N: person whose sexual behavior is not natural
pessimism belief that life is basically bad or evil; gloominess; tendency to take the gloomiest possible view of a situation; ADJ. pessimistic
pestilential(pestilent) causing plague; tending to cause death; baneful; N. pestilence: fatal epidemic disease (esp. bubonic plague)
pestle tool for mashing or grinding substances in a hard bowl or mortar
petrify turn to stone; cause to become stonelike; stun or paralyze
petty trivial; unimportant; very small; small-minded; petty-minded
petulant touchy; peevish; ill-tempered
phalanx formation of infantry carrying overlapping shields and long spears; group of men packed together (for attack or defense)
pharisaical pertaining to the Pharisees, who paid scrupulous attention to tradition; self-righteous; hypocritical
pharisee Pharisee: member of an ancient Jewish group that emphasized strict observance of the Mosaic law (considering themselves very holy); hypocritical self-righteous person
phenomena observable facts; subjects of scientific investigation; SG. phenomenon: observable fact; very unusual person, thing, or event; marvel; wonder; CF. phenomenons; ADJ. phenomenal: very unusual; extraordinary; of a phenomenon; Ex. phenomenal strength
philanderer faithless lover; flirt
philanthropist lover of mankind; doer of good; N. philanthropy
philatelist stamp-collector; N. philately: stamp collecting
Philistine narrow-minded person, uncultured and exclusively interested in material gain; uncultured person who is indifferent to artistic and cultural values; member of an ancient people in Palestine; OP. aesthete
philology study of language or words
phlegmatic calm and unexcitable; not easily disturbed; CF. phlegm: sticky mucus produced in the respiratory tract
phobia morbid fear
phoenix symbol of immortality or rebirth; Ex. phoenix rising from its ashes
phylum major classification, second to kingdom, of plants and animals; category ranking below a kingdom and above a class; division
physiognomy face (as showing the character and the mind); art of judging human character from facial features
physiological pertaining to the science of the function of living organisms; N. physiology
piebald of different colors; mottled; spotted in different colors (esp. in black and white); Ex. piebald horse; CF. pie+bald
piecemeal one part at a time; gradually; in stages; Ex. read a novel piecemeal
pied piebald; variegated(many-colored); multicolored
piety devoutness; reverence for God; ADJ. pious
pigment coloring matter (usually powder to be mixed with water or oil)
pilfer steal things of small value; filch; snitch
pillage plunder
pillory punish by placing in a wooden frame or pillory; subject or expose to criticism and ridicule; N.
pinch squeeze between the thumb and a finger, or other edges; Ex. I had to pinch myself to make sure I wasn't dreaming. N: amount that can be held between the thumb and a finger
pine long for; yearn; languish from longing or grief; decline
pinion restrain or immobilize by binding the wings or legs; N: bird's wing
pinnace small boat
pinnacle peak; highest point; acme; Ex. pinnacle of fame
pious devout; religious; N. piety
piquant pleasantly tart-tasting; spicy; pleasantly stimulating; Ex. piquant situation when my old enemy asked for my help
pique irritation; resentment from wounded pride (eg. loss in a contest); V: provoke; arouse; annoy; cause to feel resentment; Ex. pique her curiosity
piscatorial pertaining to fishing; CF. Pisces
pitfall hidden danger; concealed trap
pith core or marrow; spongelike substance in the center of stems; essence; substance
pithy concise and meaningful; substantial; meaty
pittance small amount (of money); small allowance or wage
pivotal of a pivot; central; critical; crucial
placate pacify; bring peace to; conciliate; appease
placebo harmless substance prescribed as a dummy pill
placid peaceful; calm; Ex. placid child/lake
plagiarize steal another's ideas or writings and pass them off as one's own; Ex. ideas plagiarized from my article; N. plagiarism; CF. kidnap
plaintive expressing sorrow; mournful; Ex. plaintive song
plait braid; interwine; interweave strands or lengths of; make by weaving strands together; Ex. plaited hair; N: braided length as of hair o fabric; CF. pigtail, ponytail
plane carpenter's tool for smoothing and leveling wood; V. CF. flat
plaster paste that hardens to a smooth solid and is used for coating walls; V.
plasticity ability to be molded; ADJ. plastic: capable of being shaped or molded; Ex. plastic material such as clay
platitude trite remark; commonplace statement; ADJ. platitudinous
platonic purely spiritual; theoretical; without sensual desire
plaudit praise; enthusiastic approval; round(succession or series) of applause; ADJ. plauditory; CF. applaud
plausible conceivably true; having a show of truth but open to doubt; specious
plebeian common; vulgar; pertaining to the common people; N: common people in ancient Rome; CF. patrician
plebiscite direct vote by the entire electorate (on an important issue)
plenary (of power) complete; full; fully attended by all qualified members; Ex. plenary power
plenitude abundance; plenty; great amount; completeness; fullness; CF. plenary, plenty
plethora excess; overabundance; Ex. a plethora of excuses
pliable flexible; easily influenced; yielding; adaptable
pliant flexible; easily influenced
plight difficult condition; condition or state (esp. a bad state or condition); predicament
ploy strategem to gain an advantage; tactic; Ex. management ploy
pluck courage; V: pull off or out; pull out the hair or feathers of; ADJ. plucky: courageous; brave
plumage feathers of a bird;
plumb exactly vertical; N: weight on the end of a line; V: examine very carefully or critically in order to understand; measure depth (by sounding); Ex. plumb the depth of
plumber one who installs and repairs pipes and plumbing(pipes)
plume feather, esp. large or showy one; something that rises into the air (like the shape of a feather); Ex. plume of smoke: ¹ö¼¸ ±¸¸§
plummet fall sharply; fall straight down; Ex. Stock prices plummeted.
plump pleasantly fat; nicely rounded
plutocracy society ruled by the wealthy
podiatrist doctor who treats ailments of the feet; chiropodist; N. podiatrics
podium pedestal; raised platform
poignancy quality of being deeply moving; keenness of emotion; ADJ. poignant: touching; deeply moving; (of sorrow, grief, etc.) painful; keenly distressing to the mind; Ex. poignant memory/anxiety; CF. prick
poise good judgment with composure; balance; V: place in a carefully balanced position
polar of a pole; characterized by opposite extremes; Ex. polar opposites
polarity state of having two opposite qualities
polarize split into opposite extremes or camps
polemic attack or defense of an opinion; controversy or refutation; argument in support of point of view; N. polemics: art of debate or controversy
polemical(polemic) aggressive in verbal attack; disputatious (rather than simply expressing opinions)
politic prudent; judicious; well judged; expedient; well devised
polity (particular form of) political organization; form of government of nation or state; Ex. student polity
polygamist one who has more than one spouse at a time; CF. bigamy; CF. polyandry
polyglot speaking several languages; multilingual; Ex. polyglot person/society; N.
pomposity self-important behavior; acting like a stuffed shirt(pompous person); ADJ. pompous: self-important
ponderous having great weight; weighty; unwieldy; lacking lightness; dull; Ex. ponderous body/style of writing
pontifical pertaining to a bishop or pope; pompous or pretentious; CF. pontiff: pope; bishop
pore study industriously; ponder; scrutinize; Ex. pore over the book; N.
porous full of pores; like a sieve
porridge soft food made by boiling oatmeal
portend foretell; presage; be a sign or warning of; N. portent: sign; omen; forewarning
portly stout; corpulent
pose assume a particular posture; put forward; present; affect a particular attitude (to impress others); Ex. pose a threat; N.
poseur person who pretends to be sophisticated, elegant, etc., to impress others; person who poses; CF. pose
posterity descendants; future generations; Ex. go down to posterity; CF. posterior, anterior
posthumous after death (as of child born after father's death or book published after author's death); coming or occurring after one's death; Ex. posthumous fame/novel
postmortem autopsy; ADJ: occurring after death; of a postmortem
postulate self-evident truth; something assumed without proof; V: assume the truth of (as a basis of an argument)
posture assume an affected pose; act artificially; N: pose; attitude
potable suitable for drinking; drinkable
potent powerful; convincing; persuasive; greatly influential
potentate monarch; sovereign
potential expressing possibility; latent; N: capacity for growth
potion dose (of liquids); liquid dose
potpourri heterogeneous mixture; medley; mixture of dried flower petals a pot (to give a pleasant smell to a room)
poultice soothing application applied to sore and inflamed portions of the body
pr\'ecis abstract; concise summing up of main points; concise summary of a text
practicable feasible
practical based on experience; of or acquired through practice (rather than theory); useful; Ex. practical man
pragmatic practical (as opposed to idealistic); concerned with practical worth or impact of something; Ex. pragmatic test of the skill
pragmatist practical person; N. pragmatism: pragmatic way of dealing with things
prance move about in a spirited manner (proudly and confidently)
prank mischievous trick
prate talk idly; speak foolishly; boast idly
prattle talk idly; babble; N. CF. prate
preamble introductory statement
precarious unsafe; lacking in stability; uncertain; risky; Ex. precarious living
precedent preceding (in time, rank, etc.)
precept practical rule guiding conduct; Ex. mother's precept
precinct division of a city for election or police purposes; precincts: space that surrounds a building; Ex. precincts of the college
precipice cliff; dangerous position; Ex. on the edge of the precipice
precipitant something that causes a substance in a chemical solution to separate out in solid form; OP. solvent
precipitate hurl downward; throw headlong; hasten; cause to happen sooner; condense and fall as rain or snow; cause (a solid substance) to be separated from a solution; ADJ. hasty; rash; premature; sudden
precipitous steep; overhasty; precipitate
precise exact
preclude make impossible; prevent; exclude; eliminate
precocious advanced in development; N. precocity
precursor forerunner; predecessor
predator predatory animal or bird; predatory person; creature that seizes and devours another animal; person who robs or exploits others; ADJ. predatory: living by preying on other organisms; plundering; N. predation
predecessor former occupant of a post
predetermine determine in advance; predestine; settle or decide beforehand; influence markedly
predicament difficult situation; tricky or dangerous situation; dilemma
predilection preference; partiality
predispose give an inclination toward (in advance); make susceptible to; Ex. predispose people to certain cancer; N. predisposition
preeminent outstanding; superior
preempt prevent in advance; head off(forestall); forestall by acting first; appropriate for oneself before others; supplant; take the place of; displace; Ex. preempt any attempts; ADJ. preemptive
preen make oneself tidy in appearance; feel self-satisfaction or pride; (of a bird) smooth or clean (feathers) with the beak; Ex. preen oneself on; CF. prune
prefatory introductory; of a preface
prefigure be a sign of; foreshadow
prehensile capable of grasping or holding (esp. by wrapping around); Ex. prehensile tails
prelate church dignitary; priest of high position in the church (esp. bishop)
prelude introduction; introductory performance or event; forerunner
premeditate plan in advance; Ex. premeditated murder
premise assumption; postulate; proposition upon which an argument is based
premonition forewarning; presentiment; foreboding
premonitory serving to warn
preponderance superiority of power, quantity, etc.; V. preponderate: be greater in power, weight, or importance; ADJ. preponderant
prepossessing attractive; CF. preoccupying ?
preposterous absurd; completely unreasonable; ridiculous
prerogative privilege; unquestionable right; CF. ask before
presage foretell; be a warning or sign of; N: presentiment; foreboding; omen
prescience ability to foretell the future; knowledge of actions before they occur; ADJ. prescient
presentiment premonition; foreboding; feeling something will happen; anticipatory fear
prestige respect or admiration; impression produced by achievements or reputation; ADJ: causing admiration; ADJ. prestigious: having prestige
presume take for granted; assume; act overconfidently; take liberties; presume on/upon: take unfair advantage of (someone's kindness or connection); N. presumption
presumptuous going beyond what is right; excessively forward; arrogant; taking liberties
pretend feign; pretend to: claim to possess; make pretensions to; Ex. I don't pretend to much expertise; N. pretense
pretension pretentiousness; claim (without foundation); Ex. I make no pretensions to skill as an artist.
pretentious ostentatious; showy; pompous; making unjustified claims; overambitious; Ex. pretentious films that claim to be art
preternatural beyond what is normal in nature; supernatural; Ex. preternatural strength/forces
pretext excuse
prevail be widespread; triumph over; gain victory; prevail on: persuade; induce; Ex. Justice has prevailed; Ex. prevail on someone to do something
prevalent widespread; generally accepted
prevaricate lie; hide the truth (by equivocating)
prey target of a hunt; victim; V: hunt and eat as prey; victimize; Ex. Cats prey on mice.
prim proper to the point of affectation; very precise and formal; exceedingly proper
primal first in rank or importance; being first in time; original; Ex. man's primal innocence
primary first in rank or importance; principal; earliest in time; Ex. primary stages; N. CF. first
primate group of mammals including humans
prime period of ideal or peak condition; earliest or beginning stage; Ex. in the prime of life; Ex. prime of the year(spring); ADJ: first in importance or rank; first; V: make ready; prepare
primogeniture seniority by birth; state of being the first-born child; right of the eldest child (to inherit the entire property of one or both parents)
primordial existing at the beginning (of time); rudimentary
primp groom oneself with care; adorn oneself
pristine unspoiled; remaining in a pure state; characteristic of earlier times; primitive; Ex. an old book in pristine condition
privation lack of the basic necessities or comforts of life; hardship; want; CF. deprive
privy secret; hidden; not public; made a participant in something secret; Ex. privy chamber government; Ex. be privy to a discussion; CF. private
prize pry; move with a lever; value highly; esteem; Ex. his most prized possession; N: something captured during war-time (esp. an enemy ship)
probe explore with a probe or tools; investigate; N: slender instrument used to explore a wound or body cavity; device designed to investigate an unknown region; thorough investigation; Ex. space probe
probity uprightness; honesty; incorruptibility
problematic causing a problem; open to doubt; doubtful; unsettled; questionable; Ex. Whether the arena will ever be completed is problematic.
proclivity inclination; natural tendency (esp. towards something bad)
procrastinate postpone; delay or put off
procurement obtaining; V. procure: obtain by effort; obtain (a prostitute) for another
prod poke (with a pointed object); stir up; urge; goad to action; N: pointed object used to prod; prodding
prodigal wasteful; reckless with money; profuse; Ex. a mind prodigal of ideas; N. prodigality
prodigious enormous; marvelous; extraordinary; Ex. prodigious amount/memory
prodigy highly gifted child; person with exceptional talents; marvel; wonder
profane violate; desecrate (something holy); treat unworthily; be profane for; ADJ: secular; nonreligious; irreverent for holy things
profligate wasteful (of money); dissipated; wildly immoral; dissolute; N: profligate person; N. profligacy
profound deep; not superficial; complete; Ex. profound thinker/remark/silence/deafness; N. profundity
profusion great amount; plenty; overabundance; excess; lavish expenditure; Ex. profusion of choices; ADJ. profuse: plentiful; copious; giving or given abundantly; extravagant
progenitor ancestor
progeny children; offspring; descendants
prognosis forecasted course of a disease; prediction; CF. prognostic
prognosticate predict (according to present indications)
prohibitive so high as to prohibit purchase or use; tending to prevent the purchase or use of something; prohibiting; inclined to prevent or forbid; Ex. prohibitive tax
projectile missile; fired or thrown object (such as stone or bullet)
proletarian member of the working class; blue collar guy; N. proletariat: working class (who have to work for wages)
proliferate grow rapidly (in numbers); spread; multiply; N. proliferation
prolific producing offspring or fruit in abundance; fertile; fecund; abundantly fruitful; producing abundant works; Ex. prolific writer
prolixity tedious wordiness; verbosity; ADJ. prolix: wordy; verbose; diffuse
prologue introduction (to a poem or play)
prolong lengthen; extend; draw out
prominent protruding(sticking out); conspicuous; notable; eminent
promiscuous mixed indiscriminately; indiscriminate; not choosing carefully; indiscriminate in the choice of sexual partners; irregular, particularly sexually; Ex. promiscuous life/girl; N. promiscuity
promontory headland
promote advance in rank; advance; help to flourish; advocate; help actively in forming; publicize or popularize; Ex. Milk promotes health; Ex. promote a match/bill; Ex. promote a new product
prompt cause; urge; provoke; provide a cue (for an actor); ADJ: done without delay; done at the right time; punctual; on time; N: reminder or cue
promulgate announce; proclaim a doctrine or law; make known by official publication
prone inclined to; likely to (suffer); prostrate; lying with the front downward; Ex. prone to disease/make mistakes; Ex. accident-prone
prong pointed projecting part
pronounced distinct; very noticeable; Ex. pronounced limp
prop support placed under or against something; V.
propagate increase in number by producing young; multiply; spread; Ex. Most plants propagate by seed; Ex. newspaper propagating their ideas
propellant(propellent) substance which propels or drives forward (such as an explosive charge or a rocket fuel)
propensity natural inclination
prophetic of a prophet or prophecy; having to do with predicting the future; N. prophecy; V. prophesy; N. prophet
prophylactic used to prevent disease; N: something prophylactic; condom; N. prophylaxis: prevention of disease
propinquity nearness (in space or relationship); proximity; kinship
propitiate appease; conciliate; make peaceful; ADJ. propitiatory
propitious favorable; auspicious; advantageous; fortunate; Ex. propitious day/sign
proponent supporter; backer; opposite of opponent
propound put forth for consideration or analysis; set forth; Ex. propound a problem/theory
propriety fitness; quality of being proper; correct conduct; conformity to prevailing customs and usages; CF. proprietor, proprietary
propulsive driving forward; N. propulsion
prosaic lacking in imagination; dull and unimaginative; matter-of-fact(concerned with facts, not imagination or feelings); factual; CF. prose
proscenium part of stage in front of curtain; front arch of a stage
proscribe prohibit; ostracize; banish; outlaw
proselytize (induce someone to) convert to a religion or belief; N. proselyte: new convert to a doctrine or religion
prosody art of versification; study of the metrical structure of verse
prosper become successful (esp. financially); thrive; grow well; Ex. children prospering under his care
prosperity good fortune and financial success; physical well-being
prosperous successful; rich; affluent; well-to-do; well-off
prostrate stretch out full on ground; make prostrate; enervate; Ex. prostrating illness; ADJ: lying face down; having lost all strength
prot\'eg\'e person receiving protection and support from a patron
protagonist leader or noticeable supporter of an idea; chief character in a play or story
protean able to take on many forms; versatile; CF. Proteus: sea god to change his shape at will
protocol diplomatic etiquette; ceremony and etiquette observed by diplomats; first copy of a treaty before its ratification; Ex. Protocol demands that the queen meet him at the airport.
prototype original work used as a model by others
protract prolong; lengthen in time; draw out
protrude stick out; jut; project; Ex. protruding teeth
protuberance protrusion; swelling; bulge
provenance place of origin; origin or source of something; Ex. Gunpowder is of Chinese provenance; CF. come
provender dry food for livestock; fodder
proverb adage; someone or something well known for notoriety; ADJ. proverbial: of a proverb; widely known; ADV. proverbially
providence quality of being provident; divine care; god's care; Providence: god; Ex. It seemed like providence that the doctor happened to be there; ADJ. providential: of divine providence; fortunate
provident providing for future needs; displaying foresight; thrifty; preparing for emergencies; OP. improvident
provincial pertaining to a province; limited in outlook; narrow; unsophisticated
provision act of providing; something provided; preparatory measure; provisions: necessary supplies (esp. food); stipulation; condition in an agreement; Ex. According to the provisions of the agreement
provisional tentative; temporary
proviso stipulation; condition in an agreement; provision
provocative arousing anger or sexual interest; annoying; Ex. provocative in tight jeans; V. provoke: incite to anger; cause (an unpleasant action or feeling); N. provocation
prowess extraordinary ability; military bravery; Ex. prowess in battle
proximity nearness; ADJ. proximate
proxy authorized agent; authority to act for another
prude excessively modest or proper person (who is easily shocked by improper things, esp. of a sexual nature); N. prudery; ADJ. prudish: excessively concerned with propriety
prudent cautious; careful; prudential
prune cut away; trim
prurient having or causing lustful desires and thoughts; arousing immoderate sexual desire
pry inquire impertinently (someone else's private affairs); use leverage to raise or open something; prize; N. pries: tool for prying
pseudonym pen name; fictitious name assumed by an author; ADJ. pseudonymous
psyche soul; mind
psychiatrist doctor who treats mental diseases
psychic of psyche; mental; of or possessing extraordinary mental powers
psychopathic pertaining to mental dearrangement; N. psychopath: person with an antisocial personality disorder
psychosis mental disorder; ADJ. N. psychotic
psychosomatic of the influence of the mind on the body (esp. with respect to disease)
pterodactyl extinct flying reptile; CF. wing+finger
pucker gather into wrinkles or folds; N: wrinkle or fold
pudding hot sweet dish
puerile childish; immature; CF. puer: boy
pugilist boxer; CF. pugilism: boxing
pugnacity combativeness; disposition to fight; ADJ. pugnacious: (of people) belligerent; combative in nature
puissant powerful; strong; potent; N. puissance: power
pulchritude beauty; comeliness; ADJ. pulchritudinous
pulmonary pertaining to the lungs
pulpit raised platform used in preaching (in a church)
pulsate throb; beat regularly; vibrate regularly
pulse rhythmical throbbing of arteries; brief sudden change in a normally constant quantity; V: pulsate
pulverize crush or grind into very small particles
pummel pommel; beat or pound with fists
punctilious minutely attentive (perhaps too much so) to fine points; stressing niceties of conduct or form; N. punctilio, punctiliousness: careful attention payed to every small exact detail
pundit authority on a subject; expert; learned person
pungent stinging; acrid; sharp in taste or smell; (of speech or writing) caustic; N. pungency
punitive punishing; Ex. punitive measures
puny tiny; weak; insignificant
purchase secure grasp or hold; firm grasp or footing
purgatory place of spiritual expiation; temporary state or place in which the souls must expiate their sins
purge remove or get rid of something or someone unwanted; eliminate; free from blame or guilt; cleanse or purify (esp. of sin, guilt, or defilement); N.
purport intention; purpose; meaning; V: claim; profess; Ex. order which purports to be signed by the general
purported alleged; claimed; reputed or rumored; Ex. purported Satanists
purse pucker; contract (lips) into wrinkles; N: wallet
purveyor furnisher of foodstuffs; caterer; V. purvey: supply (eg. food); furnish; CF. provide
pushy disagreeably aggressive
pusillanimous cowardly; lacking courage; fainthearted
putative supposed; reputed; generally regarded as such; Ex. putative father of the child
putrefy make or become putrid; N. putrefaction
putrescent becoming putrid; putrefying
putrid decayed and foul-smelling; foul; rotten; decayed; N. putridity
puzzle baffle or confuse by a difficult problem; ponder over a problem in an effort to solve; clarify or solve by reasoning; Ex. puzzle out the answer; N.
pyromaniac person with an insane desire to set things on fire
quack charlatan; impostor
quadruped four-footed animal; ADJ. CF. biped
quaff drink with zest; drink with relish(zest; hearty enjoyment); CF. sip
quagmire bog; marsh; soft, wet, boggy land; predicament; complex or dangerous situation from which it is difficult to free oneself
quail cower; shrink back in fear; lose heart
quaint odd in an old-fashioned way; odd; old-fashioned; picturesque
qualified limited; restricted; V. qualify: limit the meaning of; modify
qualify reach a necessary standard; limit the meaning of something stated
qualms uneasy feelings; misgivings; uneasy fears especially about matters of conscience; Ex. I have no qualms about giving this assignment to Helen.
quandary dilemma; state of uncertainty; Ex. She is in a quandary about whether to go.
quarantine isolation of a person, place, or ship to prevent spread of infection; V: isolate in quarantine
quarry dig into (to get stone); N: mine;
quash crush; suppress; squash; subdue; annul; Ex. quash a rebellion/the decision of the low court
quay dock; wharf; pier; landing place (for boats)
queasy experiencing nausea; nauseated; easily nauseated; squeamish; Ex. feel a little queasy
queer strange; eccentric; deviating from the normal
quell suppress; put an end to; put down forcibly; extinguish; quiet; Ex. ``Army Quells Rebellion'' in newspaper; CF. kill
quench assuage or satisfy (thrust); slake; douse or extinguish; put out; suppress
querulous given to complaining; complaining; fretful; whining
query inquiry; question; V.
queue line (of waiting people or vehicles)
quibble minor objection or complaint; V: raise minor objections; carp; cavil
quicksilver mercury
quiescent dormant; temporarily inactive; at rest; N. quiescence
quietude tranquillity; calmness
quintessence purest and highest embodiment; perfect example; apotheosis; most essential element; Ex. quintessence of wit; ADJ. quintessential; CF. fifth essence
quip taunt; clever sarcastic remark; V.
quirk sudden sharp turn or twist; startling twist; caprice; idiosyncrasy; peculiarity of behavior; Ex. by a quirk of fate
quisling traitor who aids invaders; CF. Vidkun Quisling
quiver tremble; shake; N.
quixotic idealistic but impractical; CF. Don Quixote
quizzical curious; suggesting puzzlement (without saying); questioning; teasing; mocking; bantering; Ex. quizzical glance
quorum minimal number of members necessary to conduct a meeting
quotidian daily; commonplace; customary; Ex. quotidian routine
rabble mob; noisy crowd
rabid of or suffering rabies; like a fanatic; extremely zealous; furious; CF. rabies: hydrophobia
rabies disease passed on by the bite of an infected animal (causing madness and death)
raconteur story-teller; one who tells stories with wit and skill
raffle lottery; V: award as a prize in a raffle; Ex. raffle off a new car
rag scrap of cloth; ADJ. ragged: old and torn; seeming unfinished and imperfect; Ex. ragged debut/performance
ragamuffin dirty child in torn clothes; person wearing tattered clothes
rail complain bitterly; scold; rant; Ex. the weaker railing against injustices
raiment clothing; garments; Ex. I have no raiment fit to wear.
rake immoral or dissolute person
rakish jaunty; stylish; sporty; morally corrupt; dissolute; Ex. He wore his hat at a rakish and jaunty angle.
rally come or bring together; call up or summon (forces, vital powers, etc.); revive or recuperate (after illness or difficulty); N: act of rallying; mass gathering
ram male sheep; V. strike or drive against with a heavy impact
ramble wander aimlessly (physically or mentally); digress
ramification branching out; subdivision; one branch of a system; one of the results following from an action or decision; Ex. ramifications of a business/the decision
ramify branch out; divide into branches or subdivisions
ramp slope; inclined plane or roadway (connecting two levels)
rampant growing or spreading uncontrollably; growing in profusion; unrestrained; Ex. rampant lawlessness/weed
rampart defensive mound of earth
ramshackle (of a building or vehicle) poorly constructed; rickety; falling apart
rancid having the odor of stale or decomposing fat; rank
rancor long-lasting hatred; bitterness; Ex. negotiation without rancor; ADJ. rancorous
random without definite purpose, plan, or aim; haphazard; Ex. random shots; Ex. chosen at random
rank offensive in odor or flavor
rankle irritate; fester; annoy
ransack search thoroughly; pillage (going through a place); Ex. Enemy soldiers ransacked the town.
rant speak violently or excitedly; rave; talk excitedly showing anger; scold; make a grandiloquent speech; Ex. The priest ranted about the devil.
rapacious voracious; ravenous; taking everything one can; excessively grasping; plundering; subsisting on live prey; Ex. rapacious birds
rapport close relationship; emotional closeness; harmony
rapt engrossed; absorbed; enchanted; Ex. rapt listener
rapture great joy and delight; ecstasy; ADJ. rapturous
rare (of air) thin in density; rarefied; Ex. rare air of the mountains
rarefied made less dense (of a gas); V. rarefy: make less dense; N. rarefaction
rasp (of a sound) grate on (eg. nerves); make a harsh noise; have an unpleasant effect; rub with something rough; Ex. The cat's tongue rasped my hand.
raspy making a harsh noise; grating; harsh
ratify approve formally; confirm; verify
ratiocination reasoning; act of drawing conclusions from premises; V. ratiocinate: reason logically
ration fixed portion; V: distribute as rations
rational (of a person) having reason; (of ideas) based on reason; logical
rationale fundamental reason or principle (on which a system or principle is based); fundamental reason or justification; grounds for an action
rationalize make rational; devise false reasons for (one's behavior); offer an excuse; give a plausible reason for an action in place of a true, less admirable ones; N. rationalization
raucous (of voice) harsh and unpleasant; (of people) disorderly and boisterous; Ex. raucous shouts
ravage devastate; plunder; despoil; Ex. crops ravaged by storms
rave overwhelmingly favorable review; V: talk wildly as if mad; Ex. raving lunatic
ravel fall apart into tangles; entangle; unravel or untwist
ravenous extremely hungry; voracious
ravine narrow valley with steep sides; gorge; CF. gully, canyon
raze destroy completely; Ex. raze the city to the ground
reactionary strongly opposed to social or political change; opposing progress; politically ultraconservative; N. OP. radical
realm kingdom; field or sphere; Ex. not within the realms of possibility
reaper one who harvests grain; Ex. the Grim Reaper; V. reap: cut and gather (crop); harvest a crop
rebate return of part of a payment; discount; V.
rebuff reject bluntly; snub; beat back; Ex. She rebuffed his invitation; N.
rebuke scold harshly; criticize severely
rebus representation of words in the form of pictures or symbols; puzzle in which pictures or letters stand for words; Ex. ``R U 18'' is a rebus for ``Are you 18''.
rebuttal refutation; response with contrary evidence; V. rebut: refute; disprove
recalcitrant disobedient or resisting authority even after being punished; obstinately stubborn; determined to resist authority; unruly; Ex. recalcitrant child
recant disclaim or disavow; retract a previous statement; openly confess error; Ex. recant one's faith/a statement
recapitulate summarize
recast reconstruct (a sentence, story, statue, etc.); fashion again
receptive quick or willing to receive (ideas, suggestions, etc.); Ex. receptive to the proposal
recess pause; temporary cessation; alcove; secret inner place; Ex. parliament in recess; V. CF. recessive
recession withdrawal; retreat; time of low economic activity
recidivism habitual return to crime (even after being punished); N. recidivist
recipient receiver
reciprocal mutual; given and received in return; exchangeable; interacting; Ex. reciprocal trade agreement
reciprocate do or give something in return; repay in kind; give or take mutually; interchange; move
recital act of reciting publicly; detailed account; performance of music or dance (by a solo performer)
recite repeat aloud (something learned); describe; Ex. recite his complaints; N. recitation
reckon count; calculate; regard as; think; suppose
recline lie down
recluse hermit; loner; ADJ. reclusive
reconcile make friendly again (after quarrel); make consistent (two ideas in opposition); correct inconsistencies; Ex. reconcile one's political principles with one's religious beliefs
recondite abstruse; not easily understood; profound; secret
reconnaissance survey of enemy by soldiers; reconnoitering; V. reconnoiter: make a preliminary inspection of (esp. to gather military information)
recount narrate or tell (a story); count over again
recourse resorting to help when in trouble; Ex. without recourse to
recreant disloyal; cowardly; N: disloyal and cowardly person
recrimination countercharges; V. recriminate
rectify set right; correct; CF. rect-: right
rectitude moral correctness; moral uprightness; moral virtue; correctness of judgment
recumbent reclining; lying down completely or in part
recuperate recover; return to health; regain; Ex. recuperate losses
recurrent occurring again and again
redolent odorous; fragrant; suggestive (of an odor); Ex. redolent of onions/mystery
redoubtable formidable; causing fear
redress remedy; compensation; Ex. seek redress for the damage to your car; V: put right; remedy or rectify (a wrong); make amends for
reduce diminish; bring to a weaker or more difficult condition; demote; lower in rank; separate into components by analysis; Ex. reduced to the ranks; Ex. reduce the house to rubble; N. reduction
redundant superfluous; more than is necessary; verbose; excessively wordy; repetitious
reek emit (an unpleasant odor or smoke); give off an unpleasant odor; give out smoke; Ex. reeking chimney; N: unpleasant odor; stench
refectory dining hall; room where meals are served (in a school)
referendum direct vote by all the people
refraction bending of a ray of light
refractory unmanageable; disobedient and stubborn; Ex. refractory horse
refrain abstain from; resist; forbear; N: chorus
refulgent effulgent; brilliant; brightly shining; gleaming; Ex. refulgent moon
refurbish renovate; make clean, bright, or fresh (make new) again; make bright by polishing; Ex. refurbish an old theater; CF. furbish: polish
refuse anything discarded or rejected as worthless; trash
refute disprove; prove to be false; N. refutation
regal royal; of a monarch; Ex. regal manner
regale entertain
regatta boat or yacht race
regeneration spiritual rebirth; Ex. regeneration of the prisoners; V. regenerate: give or obtain new life; reform spiritually
regent a person who governs in place of a ruler who is ill, absent, or still a child; ADJ. Ex. the Prince regent
regicide murder of a king or queen
regime method of system or government
regimen prescribed course of diet or exercise; prescribed diet and habits; Ex. daily regimen of a dancer
regiment military unit; V: subject to strict order; Ex. regimented society
rehabilitate restore to proper condition (health or useful life); restore the former rank of
reimburse repay; pay back
reinstate restore to a previous condition or position
reiterate repeat
rejoinder reply; retort; comeback; V. rejoin: say in reply
rejuvenate make young again
relapse return to a former state (esp. after improvement); N.
relegate put into a lower or worse place; banish to an inferior position; delegate; assign; Ex. relegate the old furniture to the children's room; Ex. relegated to the second division
relent become less severe; give in(surrender); ADJ. relentless: unyielding; continuously severe
relevant having importance; pertinent; referring to the case in hand; N. relevance, relevancy
relic surviving remnant (from an extinct culture); memento; keepsake; relics: corpse; Ex. ancient relics; Ex. relics of his travel; Ex. His relics are buried at X.
religious of religion; (of a person) pious; having reverence for a deity
relinquish give up something (with reluctance); yield; release; Ex. relinquish power/the claim to the land/his hold on my arm
relish enjoy; savor; N: enjoyment; zest
remediable reparable
reminiscence recollection; V. reminisce: recollect the past
reminiscent suggestive of something (in the past); of reminiscence
remiss negligent; careless about a duty
remission temporary moderation (of disease symptoms); remitting of a debt or punishment; cancelation of a debt; pardon; Ex. The disease went into remission; Ex. Christians pray for the remission of sins.
remit transmit (money) in payment; free someone from a debt or punishment
remittance remitting of money; amount of money remitted
remnant remainder
remonstrate protest; objection; V. remonstrate: say in protest
remorse deep regret for wrongdoing; guilt; self-reproach
remunerative (of work) compensating; rewarding; profitable; well-paid; V. remunerate: reward; pay (someone) for work or trouble
rend split; tear apart; N. rent; CF. heartrending: causing deep sorrow
render give; deliver; provide; represent in verbal or artistic form; depict; perform; make; translate; Ex. render the song beautifully
rendezvous meeting place; meeting at a set time or place; V.
rendition rendering; translation; artistic interpretation of a song, etc
renegade deserter; traitor; ADJ.
renege break a promise; deny; go back on; Ex. renege on the contract/paying off the debt
renounce abandon; give up (by formal announcement); disown; repudiate; Ex. renounce one's claim to the property/one's religion; N. renunciation
renovate restore to good condition; renew
renown fame; ADJ. renowned
rent tear made by rending; rip; split
reparable capable of being repaired
reparation compensation (for loss or wrong); amends; Ex. make reparation for the damage; CF. repair
repartee quick clever reply
repast meal; feast; banquet
repeal revoke; annul
repel drive away; disgust; Ex. repel the attack/moisture; Ex. repelled by the dirty room; CF. repulsion
repellent driving away; disgusting; offensive; repulsive; unattractive; N.
repercussion rebound; reaction; reverberation; Ex. serious repercussion
repertoire list of works of music, drama, etc., a performer is prepared to present; CF. repertory
repine fret; complain; be annoyed; Ex. repine over the undone work
replenish fill up again
replete fully filled; filled to the brim or to the point of being stuffed; abundantly supplied; Ex. report replete with errors
replica copy
replicate reproduce; duplicate
repose resting; state of being at rest; calmness; V: lie at rest; relax; put or place; Ex. repose our hopes in a single man
repository storehouse
reprehensible deserving blame; blameworthy; V. reprehend: blame
representational (of a style of art) showing things as they actually appear in real life
repress hold back (the natural expression of); restrain; crush; oppress; Ex. repressed child; Ex. repress a laugh/rebellion
reprieve postponement or cancelation of a punishment; temporary stay; V: postpone or cancel the punishment of
reprimand reprove severely; rebuke; N.
reprisal retaliation
reprise musical repetition; repeating of a piece of music; repeat performance; recurrent action; Ex. reprise in the finale; Ex. constant reprises
reproach blame (not angrily but sadly); express disapproval or disappointment; N. ADJ. reproachful
reprobate morally disapproved person; person hardened in sin, devoid of a sense of decency; CF. disapproved by God ?
reprobation severe disapproval; CF. approbation
reprove censure; rebuke; N. reproof
repudiate disown; disavow; deny
repugnance disgust; strong dislike; loathing; ADJ. repugnant: arousing disgust; repulsive
repulse reject with rudeness or coldness (an offer or friendship); drive back (an enemy attack); CF. repulse $\neq$ cause repulsion
repulsion distaste; disgust; act of driving back; ADJ. repulsive: causing disgust; tending to drive away; V. repel (not `repulse')
reputable respectable; having a good reputation
reputed supposed; Ex. reputed father of the child; V. repute: consider; N. repute: reputation; esteem
requiem mass for the dead; dirge
requisite necessary requirement; something required; ADJ: required; necessary
requisition formal demand or request; Ex. requisition for more computing equipment; V.
requite make return for; repay; reciprocate; revenge; N. requittal
rescind repeal; annul; cancel (a law, decision, or agreement)
resentment indignation; bitterness; displeasure; V. resent: feel anger about
reserve self-control; self-restraint; formal but distant manner; reticence; Ex. without reserve: freely and openly; ADJ. reserved: shy and uncommunicative
residual remaining; left over; of a residue; N: residue
residue remainder; balance
resign give up (a position, right, or claim); submit (oneself) passively
resignation patiently submissiveness; statement that one is quitting a job; ADJ. resigned: acquiescent
resilient elastic; having the power of springing back; able to recover quickly (as from misfortune)
resolution determination; resoluteness; ADJ. resolute: firm or determined in purpose
resolve decide; settle; solve; separate; make a determined decision; N. resolution
resonant (of a sound) echoing; resounding(sounding loudly); deep and full in sound; producing resonance; Ex. resonant voice; N. resonance
resort turn to for help; Ex. resort to violence; N.
resound (of a place) be filled with sound; (of a sound) sound loudly; sound back; echo; Ex. hall resounded with laughter
resourceful clever and imaginative (in dealing with difficult situations); N. resource, resourcefulness
respiration breathing; exhalation; ADJ. respiratory
respite time for rest; interval of relief; delay in punishment; reprieve
resplendent brilliant; splendid in appearance; dazzling; glorious
responsiveness state of reacting readily to appeals, orders, etc.; ADJ. responsive: readily reacting; Ex. responsive to treatment
restitution returning something (lost or stolen) to the rightful owner; reparation; indemnification; compensation for loss, damage, or injury
restive impatiently restless (induced by external coercion or restriction); restlessly impatient; obstinately resisting control; Ex. restive horses because of wolves; CF. not a general synonym for `restless'
restraint moderation or self-control; controlling force; restriction
resumption taking up again; recommencement; V. resume: begin or take up again; take or occupy again; Ex. Kindly resume your seats.
resurge rise again; flow to and fro; N. resurgence; ADJ. resurgent: (of ideas or beliefs) experiencing revival; surging again
resurrect revive
resuscitate revive; bring back to life or consciousness; Ex. resuscitate the drowned child
retain keep; maintain possession of; employ (esp. a lawyer or advisor); N. retainer: servant; fee paid to retain an advisor
retaliate repay in kind (usually for bad treatment); V. retaliate
retard delay (in development); ADJ. retarded: (as of a child) slower in development
retentive holding; able to retain things (esp. facts in the mind); having a good memory
reticent inclined to silence; uncommunicative; reserved; Ex. He was reticent about the reasons; N. reticence
retinue following; attendants
retiring shy and reserved (of a person); modest; Ex. her retiring personality
retort quick sharp reply; V.
retract withdraw; take back; draw back; Ex. retract a statement/an offer/claws; N. retraction; CF. retractile
retrench cut down; cut down expenses; economize
retribution deserved punishment for wrongdoing; punishment for offenses; compensation; vengeance; CF. pay back
retrieve recover; put right; find and bring in; regain; Ex. retrieve the situation
retroactive taking effect before its enactment (as a law) or imposition (as a tax); (of a law) having effect on the past as well as the future
retrograde go backwards; recede; degenerate; deteriorate; ADJ.
retrospective looking back on the past; N. retrospection; V. retrospect
revelry boisterous merrymaking; V. revel: engage boisterous festivities; enjoy greatly; N: boisterous festivity or celebration
reverberate echo repeatedly; resound; Ex. The thunder reverberated across the valley.
reverend deserving reverence; N: priest
reverent respectful; worshipful; V. revere: regard with reverence; N. reverence: profound respect
reverie daydream; abstracted musing
revert relapse; backslide; turn back to; return to the former owner; N. reversion
revile attack with abusive language; vilify(slander)
revoke cancel; retract; CF. irrevocable
revulsion sudden strong feeling of disgust; sudden violent change of feeling; negative reaction; Ex. revulsion from the scenes of torture
rhapsodize speak or write in an exaggeratedly enthusiastic manner; Ex. rhapsodize over the beauty of the scenery
rhapsody excessively enthusiastic expression of feeling; musical composition of irregular form (as if made up as one plays it)
rhetoric art of effective communication; art of using language effectively and persuasively; style of speaking or writing; grandiloquent language; Ex. political rhetoric; ADJ. rhetorical; CF. rhetorical question: question to which no answer is expected as ``Who k
ribald marked by vulgar lewd humor; wanton; profane; N. ribaldry: ribald language or joke
rickety (of buildings) likely to break or fall apart; of rickets; CF. rickets; CF. vitamin D
riddle pierce with holes; permeate or spread throughout; Ex. The gunman riddled the car with bullets; Ex. The whole report is riddled with errors; N. large sieve (separating earth from stone)
rider amendment or clause added to a legislative bill
rife (of something bad) widespread; abundant; current
rift narrow opening in a large mass; break in a friendly relation; Ex. through a rift in the clouds; OP. reconcilation
rig arrangement of masts and sails; V: equip (a ship) with rigging; ADJ. rigging: ropes that hold up a ship's sails
righteous morally upright; just
rightful legally correct; Ex. rightful owner
rigid hard and unbending; stiff and unyielding; fixed in behavior or views; strict; rigorous; Ex. rigid rule
rigor severity; Ex. rigors of the Russian winter
rile irritate; vex; muddy
rip tear or be torn quickly and violently; Ex. The sail ripped under the force of the wind; N.
rivet metal pin used for fastening metal plates together; V: fasten with a rivet; engross
riveting holding one's attention; absorbing; engrossing
rivulet small stream; CF. rill < rivulet < river
robust strong; vigorous
rococo ornate; highly decorated; N. CF. 18th century
roil make liquids murky by stirring up sediment; disturb
rolling (of land) rising and falling in long gentle slopes; happening continuously by stages; Ex. rolling devolution of power to local governments
romp play or frolic boisterously; gambol; N.
rooster cock; adult male chicken
roseate rosy; optimistic; Ex. roseate views
roster list (of names)
rostrum raised platform for speech-making; pulpit
rote repetition; memorization through repetition without understanding; Ex. learn poetry by rote
rotund (of a person) fat and round
rotunda circular building or hall covered with a dome
rotundity roundness; sonorousness of speech
rou\'e lecherous man
rousing lively; inducing excitement; stirring; V. rouse: waken; arouse from sleep or depression; excite; stir up
rout put to rout; stampede; drive out; N: complete defeat and disorderly retreat
rubble fragments (esp. from a destroyed building)
rubric title or heading (in red print); directions for religious ceremony; protocol
ruddy reddish; (of the face) reddish and healthy-looking
rudimentary elementary; not developed; crude; N. rudiment: fundamental element or principle; Ex. rudiments of the language
rue regret; lament; mourn; Ex. He will rue the day; N. ADJ. rueful
ruffian violent scoundrel; bully
rumble make or move with a deep rolling sound (as thunder or stomach)
ruminant animal that ruminates; ADJ.
ruminate chew over and over (mentally or, like cows, physically); mull over(ponder)
rummage ransack; thoroughly search
run-down (of a place) dilapidated; in a bad condition; (of a person) weak or exhausted
runic mysterious; set down in an ancient alphabet; N. rune: one of the letters of an alphabet used by ancient Germanic peoples (cut on stone or wood); magic charm
ruse trick to deceive; stratagem
rustic pertaining to country people; unsophisticated; simple; crude; uncouth; (of furniture) rough with the bark left on; N. rural person; rustic person
rusticate banish to the country; dwell in the country
rustle make slight sounds like silk moving or being rubbed together
ruthless pitiless; merciless; cruel
saboteur one who commits sabotage; destroyer of property; N. sabotage: destruction of property (usually carried out secretly)
saccharine cloying sweet; characteristic of sugar or saccharin
sacrilegious desecrating; profane; N. sacrilege: desecration, misuse, or theft of something sacred
sacrosanct invioably sacred; most sacred; inviolable
sadistic inclined to cruelty; N. sadism: delight in cruelty
saga Scandinavian myth; any legend; long heroic narrative
sagacious wise; perceptive; shrewd; having insight; N. sagacity
sage person celebrated for wisdom; wise person; ADJ: wise
salacious lascivious; lustful; Ex. salacious monk
salient prominent; projecting beyond a line; conspicuous; Ex. salient features
saline salty
sallow (of the skin) yellowish and unhealthy-looking; sickly in color; Ex. sallow complexion due to jaundice
salubrious healthful; conducive to health or well-being; socially desirable; Ex. salubrious area; CF. health
salutary tending to improve; beneficial; wholesome; Ex. The punishment had a salutary effect on the boy; CF. health
salvage rescue (goods or property) from loss; N: saving; property saved
sanctimonious displaying ostentatious or hypocritical devoutness; N. sanctimony: hypocritical piety
sanction approve; ratify; N: permission; penalty intended to enforce compliance
sanctuary place of refuge; shelter; shrine; holy place; Ex. The outlaw was granted sanctuary in the church.
sanguinary bloody; with much bloodshed
sanguine optimistic; cheerful; hopeful; of the color of blood; red
sap diminish; weaken; undermine the foundations of (a fortification); Ex. The element kryptonite sapped his strength.
sarcasm cutting ironic remark; scornful remarks; stinging rebuke; ADJ. sarcastic
sardonic scornfully mocking; disdainful; sarcastic; cynical; Ex. sardonic smile
sartorial pertaining to tailors or tailoring; Ex. a man of great sartorial elegance; CF. sartor: tailor
sate satisfy to the full; satisfy to excess; cloy
satellite small body revolving around a larger one
satiate satisfy fully (physical needs such as hunger); sate; N. satiety: condition of being satiated
satire form of literature in which irony, sarcasm, and ridicule are employed to attack human vice and folly
satirical using satire; mocking
saturate soak thoroughly; imbue; impregnate; charge; fill to capacity
saturnine morose; gloomy; Ex. Do not be misled by his saturnine countenance.
satyr half-human, half-bestial being in the court of Dionysus (resembling a goat), portrayed as wanton(unrestrained) and cunning; lecher; CF. faun; CF. goat: lecherous man
saunter stroll(go for a leisurely walk) slowly; N.
savant scholar; learned person; CF. savoir: know
savor enjoy; have a distinctive flavor, smell, or quality; N: taste or smell; distinctive quality
savory pleasant in taste; tasty; pleasing, attractive, or agreeable; Ex. savory reputation
scabbard case for a sword blade; sheath
scad a great quantity; Ex. scads of clothes
scaffold temporary platform for workers (to work at heights above the ground); bracing framework; platform for execution
scale climb up; ascend; remove or come off in scales; N: flake of epidermis; ascending or descending series of musical tones
scanty meager; insufficient
scapegoat someone who bears the blame for others; whipping boy; CF. escape+goat
scavenge hunt through discarded materials for usable items or food; search, especially for food; N. scavenger: one who scavenges; animal that feeds on refuse and carrion
scenario plot outline; screenplay(script for a movie); opera libretto; outline of possible future events
schematic of a schema or scheme; relating to an outline or diagram; using a system of symbols; N. schema: diagrammatic representation; outline
scheme systematic plan; plot; clever dishonest plan; orderly arrangement of elements; Ex. health insurance scheme; Ex. a scheme to escape taxes; Ex. a color scheme; Ex. a story with no scheme; V: contrive a scheme
schism division into factions (esp. within a religious body); split
scholarly full of learning; erudite; like a scholar; Ex. scholarly journal
scintilla trace; minute amount; shred; least bit; Ex. There is not a scintilla of truth; CF. spark
scintillate sparkle; flash; be animated; be full of life; Ex. scintillating conversation
scion detached plant shoot used in grafting; descendant
scoff laugh (at); mock; ridicule; Ex. scoff at their threats
scorch sear; N.
score number of points; written form of a musical composition; reason; group of 20; notch or incision; Ex. full/vocal score; Ex. Don't worry on that score; V: mark with lines or notches; Ex. score the paper to make it easy to fold
scotch stamp out(put an end to); thwart; hinder; Ex. scotch the rumor; CF. cut; CF. È°µ¿À» ÁÙÀÌ´Â ÀǹÌ
scourge lash; whip (formerly used for punishment); source of severe punishment; V: whip; afflict
scowl frown angrily; N: angry frown
scrap small bit or fragment; discarded waste material; fight; Ex. a scrap of paper/cloth; V: break into parts for disposal; discard as worthless; fight; quarrel
scrappy quarrelsome
scraps leftover food
screech unpleasant high sharp sound; shriek; V.
scrimmage disorderly fight between two or more people
scruple hesitate for ethical reasons; fret about; Ex. She did not scruple to read his diary; N: uneasy feeling arising from conscience; conscience
scrupulous conscientious; extremely thorough; Ex. scrupulous worker
scrutinize examine closely and critically; N. scrutiny
scuffle struggle confusedly; move off in a confused hurry; N. CF. scuffling twins ?
scurrilous abusive; obscene; indecent; Ex. scurrilous remark
scurry move hastily; hurry; move briskly
scurvy contemptible; despicable; N: disease caused by deficiency of Vitamin C
scuttle sink (a ship) by cutting holes in the hull; scrap; discard; N: small hatch in a ship's deck or hull
seamy sordid; base; filthy; unwholesome; Ex. seamy side of city life
sear burn the surface of; char or burn; brand; parch; cause (a plant) to wither
season enhance the flavor of by adding a spice, etc.; inure; harden; N. seasoning: something used in seasoning
seasonable occurring at the proper time or season; opportune; Ex. seasonable intervention in the dispute
seasonal of a particular season; Ex. seasonal rise in employment
seasoned experienced
secession withdrawal; V. secede: withdraw formally from membership
seclusion isolation; solitude; V. seclude: set apart from others; isolate
secrete conceal; hide away or cache; produce and release a substance into an organism; CF. secretive
sect separate religious body; faction; group of people with common beliefs within a larger group
sectarian of a sect; narrow-minded; parochial; N: member of a sect; narrow-minded person
secular worldly; not pertaining to church matters or religion; temporal
sedate composed (with no excitement); grave; V: administer a sedative to; CF. sedative
sedentary requiring sitting; done while sitting; not moving from one place to another; settled; Ex. sedentary job/population
sedition conduct or language inciting rebellion; rebellion; resistance to authority; insubordination; ADJ. seditious
seduce lead away from proper conduct; entice; ADJ. seductive
sedulous diligent; assiduous; paying attention; N. sedulity
seedy run-down; decrepit; disreputable; having many seeds; Ex. seedy downtown hotel
seemly (of behavior) proper; appropriate
seep pass slowly through small openings; ooze; trickle; N. seepage
seethe be violently disturbed; boil; (of a liquid) move about wildly as if boiling; Ex. The nation was seething with discontent.
seine seine net; net for catching fish
seismic pertaining to earthquakes
selective careful in choosing; having an effect only on certain things; not general; Ex. eclectic weed killer
self-indulgence excessive indulgence of one's own desire
self-righteous sure of one's own righteousness; moralistic
semblance outward appearance; guise; Ex. We called in the troops to bring a/some semblance of order to the city.
seminal related to seed or semen; germinal; creative; providing a basis for further development; influencing future developments; Ex. seminal research in a new field
seminary school for training future ministers; secondary school, especially for young women
senility old age; feeblemindedness of old age; ADJ. senile: resulting from old age; showing the weakness of body or mind from old age; Ex. senile dementia
sensitization process of being made sensitive or acutely responsive to an external agent or substance; V. sensitize: make or become sensitive
sensual devoted to the pleasures of the sense; carnal; voluptuous; Ex. sensual woman/curves/lips
sensuous giving pleasure to the senses; pertaining to the physical senses; operating through the senses; sensuous feeling of soft velvet on the skin
sententious pithy; terse; concise; aphoristic
sentient capable of sensation and conscious; aware; sensitive; Ex. sentient creature; N. sentience
sentimental swayed by sentiment; appealing to the sentiments
sentinel sentry; lookout
septic of or causing sepsis; putrid; producing putrefaction; N. sepsis: poisoning of part of the body (producing pus)
sepulcher tomb; V: place in a sepulcher; ADJ. sepulchral
sequester isolate; segregate; seclude; retire from public life
sere sear; parched; dry
serendipity gift for finding valuable things by accident; accidental good fortune or luck; CF. The Three Princes of Serendip
serenity calmness; placidity; ADJ. serene
serpentine winding; twisting; of or like a serpent; Ex. serpentine course of the river; N. serpent: snake
serrated having a sawtoothed edge; Ex. serrated leaf
servile slavish; cringing; N. servility
servitude slavery; compulsory labor imposed as a punishment
sever separate; cut off (a part) from a whole; break up (a relationship); N. severance; CF. severance pay: extra pay given an employee upon leaving a position
severity harshness; intensity; sternness; austerity; ADJ. severe: harsh; strict; extremely violent or intense
sextant navigation tool used to determine a ship's latitude and longitude (by measuring the altitudes of stars)
shack crude cabin
shackle chain; fetter; confine with shackles; N.
shade slight difference in degree; nuance; degree of color; Ex. shades of meaning/grey
sham pretend; feign; ADJ: not genuine; fake; Ex. sham jewelry; N: something that is not what it appears; impostor; pretense; Ex. The agreement was a sham.
shambles (place or scene of) complete disorder or ruin; wreck; mess; Ex. After the hurricane, the coast was a shambles.
Shangri-la imaginary remote paradise on earth; CF. Lost Horizon
shard fragment generally of broken pottery (glass, clay bowl, or cup)
shaving very thin piece, usually of wood (cut from a surface with a sharp blade)
sheaf bundle of stalks of grain; any bundle of things tied together
shear remove (fleece or hair) by cutting; remove the hair or fleece from; cut with or as if with shears; N: shears; pair of scissors
sheathe place into a case; insert into or provide with a sheath; Ex. He sheathed his dagger; N. sheath: case for a blade
shed small roofed structure for storage and shelter; V: pour forth; lose by natural process; repel without allowing penetration; radiate; cast; Ex. shed tears/light/water/skin/leaves
sheer pure; thin and transparent; very steep
sherbet flavored dessert ice
shift change position or place; exchange (one thing) for another; change in direction or position; Ex. shift the stolen goods; N. group of workers which takes turns with other groups; working period of such a group
shimmer shine with a flickering light; glimmer intermittently; Ex. The moonlight shimmered on the water; N.
shirk avoid (responsibility, work, etc.); malinger
shoddy made of inferior material; sham; not genuine; inferior; dishonest; Ex. shoddy goods/trick
shoot new growth from a plant
shove push forward; push roughly; Ex. pushing and shoving to get on the bus; N.
shrew scolding woman; very small mouselike animal
shrewd clever; astute
shrivel make or become shrunken and wrinkled (often by drying)
shudder shake uncontrollably; tremble; V.
shuffle mix together; jumble; move (something) from one place to another; slide (the feet) along the ground while walking; Ex. shuffle papers from one pile to another; N.
shun keep away from; avoid deliberately; Ex. She has been shunned by her neighbors.
shunt move (a railway train) from one track to another; turn aside; divert; sidetrack; Ex. shunt traffic around an accident; N.
shyster lawyer using questionable methods; unscrupulous practioner
sibling brother or sister
sibylline prophetic; oracular; N. sibyl: woman prophet (in the ancient world)
sidereal relating to stars; Ex. sidereal day
sidetrack switch (a railroad car) to a siding; divert from a main issue; N. CF. siding: short section of railroad track connected by switches with a main track
sift put through a sieve to separate fine from coarse particles; sort or examine carefully
significant expressing a meaning; important; Ex. significant smile; N. significance: importance; meaning; V. signify: denote; mean; signal; make known; matter; be significant
silt sediment deposited by running water (at the entrance to a harbor or by a bend in a river)
simian monkeylike; N: ape or monkey
simile comparison of one thing with another, using the word like or as
simper smirk; smile in a silly way; smile affectedly
simplistic oversimplified
simulate feign; imitate
sinecure well-paid position with little responsibility; CF. sine cure: without care; CF. San Serif
sinewy (of meat) tough; strong and firm; muscular; N. sinew: tendon; strong cord connecting a muscle to a bone
singular being only one; individual; unique; extraordinary; odd; Ex. singular beauty/behavior
sinister evil; ominous
sinuous twisting; winding; bending in and out; not morally honest
siren apparatus for making sounds; womanlike creature
skeptic sceptic; doubter; person who suspends judgment until he has examined the evidence supporting a point of view; ADJ. skeptical; N. skepticism; scepticism
skiff small light sailboat or rowboat
skim read or glance through quickly; touch lightly in passing; brush; remove from the surface of a liquid
skimp provide or use scantily; live very economically; Ex. skimp on necessities; ADJ. skimpy: inadequate in amount; scanty; stingy; niggardly
skinflint miser; stingy person
skirmish minor fight; minor battle in war; V.
skittish inconstant; capricious; frivolous; not serious; Ex. charming but skittish young woman; CF. skit
skulduggery(skullduggery) dishonest behavior or action; Ex. skulduggery in the election
skulk move furtively and secretly; Ex. He skulked through the less fashionable sections of the city.
slack moving slowly; sluggish; inactive; (of a rope) loose; negligent; lax; Ex. slack season; Ex. slack in one's work; N. V.
slacken slow up; loosen; make or become slack
slag glassy residue from smelting metal; dross; waste matter
slake satisfy (thirst); quench; sate
slander defamation; utterance of false and malicious statements; V. ADJ. slanderous
slap hit quickly with the flat part of the hand; N. CF. smack
slapdash hasty and careless; haphazard; sloppy(carelessly done)
slaughter killing of animals for food; massacre; V: butcher (animals) for food; kill in large numbers
slavish of or like a slave; servile; showing no originality; copied very closely; Ex. slavish devotion/copy of the original
sleazy shabby and dirty; flimsy; insubstantial; Ex. sleazy back-street hotel/fabric
sledge large sled drawn by work animals
sleek smooth and shining (as from good health); V.
sleeper one that achieves unexpected success; something originally of little value or importance that in time becomes very valuable
sleigh large vehicle drawn by a horse over snow or ice
sleight dexterity; CF. sleight of hand: legerdemain; quickness of the hands in doing tricks
slew large quantity or number; Ex. slew of errands left
slick make smooth or glossy; N: smooth surface; Ex. oil slick; ADJ: smooth; glossy; deftly executed; adroit; glib
slight insult to one's dignity; snub; V: treat as if of small importance; insult; snub; ADJ. small in size; of small importance
slink move furtively; ADJ. slinky: stealthy; furtive; sneaky (as in ambush)
slipshod slovenly; careless; sloppy; untidy; shabby; Ex. slipshod work
slither slip or slide
sloth slow moving tree-dwelling mammal; laziness; ADJ. slothful: lazy; indolent
slough (of a snake) shed or cast off (dead outer skin); N: outer layer that is shed
slovenly untidy; careless in work habits; slipshod; N. sloven: one who is habitually untidy or careless
sluggard lazy person
sluggish lazy; slow; inactive; lethargic; CF. slug: nail with no shell
sluice artificial channel for directing or controlling the flow of water (with a gate to regulate the flow)
slur pronounce indistinctly; speak indistinctly; mumble
sly clever in deceiving; secretive; not telling one's intentions
smart intelligent; quick and energetic; fashionable; Ex. smart pace/restaurant; V: cause or feel a sharp pain; N: smarting pain
smattering slight knowledge; small scattered number or amount; Ex. smattering of German
smear spread or cover with a sticky substance; N: mark made by smearing
smelt melt (ore) for separating and removing the metal; melt or blend ores changing their chemical composition
smirk conceited smile; offensively self-satisfied smile (often at someone else's misfortune); V.
smolder smoulder; burn slowly without flame; be liable to break out at any moment; exist in a suppressed state; Ex. smoldering anger
smother kill from lack of air; suppress; cover thickly; Ex. smothered in little stickers
smudge dirty mark with unclear edges made by rubbing; V.
smug self-satisfied; complacent
sneak move, give, or take in a quiet, stealthy way; N: one who sneaks; ADJ. sneaky
snicker half-stifled(suppressed) laugh; V.
snip short quick cut with scissors; V: cut with scissors
snivel complain or whine tearfully; run at the nose; snuffle; Ex. Don't come back sniveling to me.
snub ignore or behave coldly toward; Ex. I made a suggestion but she snubbed me; N.
snuffle sniffle; sniff repeatedly (in order to keep liquid from running out of the nose)
soar rise or fly high in the air; Ex. The rocket soared into the sky.
sober serious; solemn; not drunken; abstemious or temperate; V: make or become sober
sobriety moderation (especially regarding indulgence in alcohol); seriousness
sodden thoroughly soaked; dull or stupid as if from drink
sojourn temporary stay; V: stay for a time
solace comfort in sorrow or trouble; consolation; V: comfort or console in time of sorrow or trouble
solder repair or make whole by using a metal alloy; N: metal alloy (usually tin and lead) used in the molten state to join metallic parts
solecism nonstandard grammatical construction; construction that is flagrantly incorrect grammatically; violation of social etiquette
solemnity seriousness; gravity
solicit entreat; request earnestly; seek to obtain; Ex. solicit votes; CF. solicitor: one who solicits; chief law officer
solicitor lawyer in the lower court of law
solicitous anxious; worried; concerned; eager; Ex. solicitous to do something; N. solicitude
soliloquy talking to oneself (esp. in a play); CF. monologue: soliloquy; long speech by one person (often monopolizing a conversation)
solitude state of being alone; seclusion; ADJ. solitary: existing or living alone (esp. by choice); remote or secluded; single; sole; Ex. solitary life/inn; Ex. no solitary piece of proof
solstice point or time at which the sun is farthest from the equator
soluble able to be dissolved in a liquid; able to be worked out or solved
solvent substance that dissolves another; ADJ: capable of dissolving another substance
somatic pertaining to the body; bodily; physical
somber dark; gloomy; melancholy; depressing; CF. shadow
somnambulist sleepwalker; V. somnambulate; N. somnambulism
somnolent half asleep; drowsy; N. somnolence
sonic of sound or its speed in air; CF. subsonic, supersonic
sonnet 14-line poetic verse form with a fixed rhyme pattern
sonorous resonant; producing a full deep sound; producing sound
soothsayer one who foretells the future
sophist teacher of philosophy; quibbler; employer of fallacious reasoning; N. sophism: plausible but fallacious argument
sophisticated worldly wise and urbane; refined; complex; N. sophistication; V. sophisticate
sophistry seemingly plausible but fallacious reasoning; sophism
sophomoric immature; half-baked; like a sophomore
soporific sleep-causing; marked by sleepiness; drowsy
sordid filthy; foul; base; vile; Ex. sordid bed/story
sound in good condition; showing good judgment or good sense; thorough; complete; Ex. sound mind/investment/training
sour having a sharp or acid taste; acid; tart; bad-tempered; V.
sovereign ruler in a monarchy; ADJ: (of a country) independent and self-governing; having supreme power; supreme; excellent
sovereignty complete independence and self-government (of a country); supremacy of authority; power to govern
sow plant or scatter seed
spangle small shiny metallic piece sewn to clothing for ornamentation
spare give; use; refrain from harming; save from experiencing; exempt; Ex. spare me 5 minutes; Ex. Take this money and spare my life; Ex. The emperor was spared the onus; ADJ: kept in reserve; free for other use; unoccupied; Ex. spare time
sparse not thick; thinly scattered; scanty
Spartan without attention to comfort; lacking luxury and comfort; sternly disciplined; Ex. spartan living condition/life
spasmodic fitful; periodic; of or like a spasm; N. spasm: sudden involuntary muscular contraction; sudden burst of energy or emotion
spat squabble; minor dispute; minor quarrel
spate sudden flood or rush; Ex. spate of accidents
spatial relating to space
spatula broad-bladed instrument used for spreading or mixing
spawn lay eggs (in large numbers); produce offspring (in large numbers); N: eggs of aquatic animals
specious seemingly reasonable but incorrect; misleading (often intentionally)
speck small piece or mark; Ex. speck of dust in the eye
spectral ghostly; N. specter: spectre; ghost; phantom
spectrum colored band produced when a beam of light passes through a prism; broad and continuous range; Ex. whole spectrum of modern thoughts
speechless unable for the moment to speak (because of strong feeling); Ex. speechless with anger
spendthrift someone who wastes money; CF. thrift: accumulated wealth
sphinx-like enigmatic; mysterious
spin rotate swiftly; make (thread) by twisting (cotton, wool, etc.); N.
splice join together end to end to make one continuous length; fasten together; unite; Ex. splice two strips of tape; N.
spoilsport one who spoils the pleasure of others
spontaneity lack of premeditation; naturalness; freedom from constraint; ADJ. spontaneous: self-generated; unpremeditated; happening without being planned
spoof parody
spoonerism accidental transposition of sounds in successive words; Ex. ``Let me sew you to your sheet'' for ``Let me show you to your seat''; CF. William Spooner
sporadic occurring irregularly; intermittent
sportive playful; frolicsome; merry; CF. sport: play or frolic; CF. sportsmanlike
sprout begin to grow; give off shoots or buds; N: new growth on a plant; shoot
spruce neat and trim in appearance; smart; Ex. Be spruce for your job interview; V.
spry (esp. of older people) vigorously active; nimble
spurious false; counterfeit; forged; illogical; Ex. spurious arguments
spurn reject disdainfully; scorn; Ex. She spurned all offers of help.
squabble minor quarrel; bickering; V: engage in a minor quarrel; Ex. squabbling children
squalor condition of being squalid; filth; degradation; dirty neglected state; ADJ. squalid: dirty; sordid; morally repulsive; Ex. squalid story
squander waste; spend foolishly
squash crush; quash; suppress
squat short and thick; stocky; Ex. ugly squat tower; V. N.
squeamish easily shocked or sickened by unpleasant things; fastidious; Ex. A nurse should not be squeamish.
squelch produce a splashing sound (when stepping through mud); crush; squash;
staccato played in an abrupt manner; marked by abrupt sharp sound; Ex. staccato applause
stagnant (of water) not flowing (often bad-smelling); motionless; stale; not developing; inactive; dull; Ex. stagnant industrial output
staid serious and sedate; sober; Ex. staid during the funeral ceremony
stalemate deadlock; situation in which further action is blocked
stalwart physically strong; brawny; steadfast; strong in mind or determination; Ex. stalwart supporter; N: stalwart follower
stamina power of endurance; strength; staying power
stammer speak with involuntarily pauses or repetitions
stamp step on heavily (so as to crush or extinguish); put an end to; imprint or impress with a mark, design, or seal; shape with a die; characterize; Ex. machine stamping out car bodies; Ex. newspaper stamping him as a liar; N. stamping; implement used to stam
stampede sudden frenzied rush (of panic-stricken animals or people); V: participate in or cause stampede; Ex. stampede before the price rises
stanch stop or check flow of blood; Ex. stanch the gushing wound
standstill condition of no movement or activity; stop
stanza division of a poem (composed of two or more lines)
start move suddenly or involuntarily; Ex. start at the sight of a snake
stately formal; ceremonious; grand in style or size; majestic
static having no motion; unchanging; lacking development; N. stasis: stable state
statute law enacted by the legislature
statutory created by statute or legislative action; regulated by statute; Ex. statutory age limit
steadfast steadily loyal; unswerving; steady
stealth action of moving secretly or unseen; slyness; sneakiness; secretiveness; ADJ. stealthy
steep soak; saturate; Ex. steep the fabric in the dye bath; ADJ: precipitous
stellar pertaining to the stars; of a star performer; outstanding; Ex. stellar attraction of the entire performance
stem stop or check (the flow of); Ex. stem the bleeding from the slashed artery; N: main axis of a plant; stalk
stem_from arise from; originate from
stench strong foul odor; reek; stink
stentorian (of the voice) extremely loud; CF. Stentor: a loud herald in the Iliad
stereotype one regarded as embodying a set image or type; fixed and unvarying representation; standardized mental picture often reflecting prejudice; Ex. stereotype of the happy slave; V: make a stereotype of; represent by a stereotype; Ex. It is wrong to stereotyp
sterile incapable of producing young; free from microorganism; V. sterilize
stickler perfectionist; person who insists things be exactly right
stifle suppress; extinguish; inhibit; smother or suffocate
stigma token of disgrace; brand; V. stigmatize: mark with a stigma; characterize as disgraceful
stilted bombastic; stiffly pompous; Ex. stilted rhetoric; CF. stiff: formal
stink stench; V: emit a strong foul odor
stint supply; allotted amount of work; assigned portion of work; limitation; Ex. two-year stint in the army; Ex. without stint
stipend pay for services
stipple paint or draw with dots or short strokes
stipulate state as a necessary condition (of an agreement); make express conditions; specify; Ex. He stipulated payment in advance
stock standard; kept regularly in stock or supply; typical; routine; common; Ex. stock sizes of paper; Ex. stock excuse/character; N: goods for sale in a shop; OP. unique
stockade wooden enclosure or pen; fixed line of posts used as defensive barrier
stodgy dull; stuffy; boringly conservative; Ex. stodgy book
stoic stoical; impassive; unmoved by joy or grief; N. CF. stoicism
stoke stir up a fire or furnace; feed plentifully
stolid dull; impassive; showing little emotion when strong feelings are expected
stoop bend forward and down; lower or debase oneself; fall to a lower standard of behavior by doing something; condescend; Ex. stoop to lying
stout rather fat; strong in body; sturdy; resolute; determined; strong in determination; Ex. stout stick/supporter
straggle stray or fall behind (a main group); spread out in a scattered group; Ex. straggling marathon racer; Ex. straggling branch
strangle kill by choking or suffocating; suppress
stratagem deceptive scheme; clever trick
stratified divided into classes; arranged into strata; V. stratify
stratum layer of earth's surface; layer of society; PL. strata
strew spread randomly; sprinkle; scatter; Ex. flower girl strewing rose petals
striated marked with parallel bands; striped; grooved; Ex. striated rocks; V. striate; N. stria: thin groove or line
stricture severe and adverse criticism; critical comments; limit or restriction
strident loud and harsh; insistent; N. stridency
stringent (of rules) binding; rigid; marked by scarcity of money; Ex. stringent economic conditions
strut supporting bar; CF. airplane wing building support
studied carefully contrived; calculated; unspontaneous; deliberate; thoughtful; Ex. studied remark
studious given to diligent study
stultify make stupid in mind; cause to appear or become stupid or inconsistent; suppress; frustrate or hinder; Ex. stultifying effect of uninteresting work; Ex. stultify free expression
stumble trip and almost fall; proceed unsteadily; act falteringly; N.
stump base of a tree trunk left after the rest has been cut down; V: walk in a heavy manner; baffle; puzzle
stun make unconscious or numb as by a blow; amaze; astound
stupefy stun; make numb (as with a drug); amaze
stupor state of being stupefied; state of apathy; daze; lack of awareness
sturdy strong and firm (in the body)
stygian unpleasantly dark; gloomy; hellish; deathly; CF. Styx: the chief river in the subterranean land of the dead
stymie thwart; present an obstacle; stump
suavity urbanity; polish; ADJ. suave: smooth and courteous
subaltern subordinate
subdue less intense; quieter; Ex. subdued lighting; Ex. subdue: conquer; make less intense; quiet; Ex. subdue one's anger
subjective influenced by personal feelings; occurring or taking place within the mind; unreal; Ex. subjective sensation of the ghostly presence
subjugate conquer; bring under control
sublimate refine; purify; replace (natural urges) with socially acceptable activities; change between a solid state and a gaseous state
sublime causing deep feelings of wonder, joy, respect, etc.; exalted; noble and uplifting; utter
subliminal below the threshold of conscious perception; Ex. subliminal advertisement
submerge place under water; dip; go under water; cover completely (as with water); Ex. submerged in work
submissive willing to obey orders; yielding; timid
subordinate occupying a lower rank; inferior; submissive; N. V: put in a lower rank or class
suborn persuade to act unlawfully (especially to commit perjury); N. subornation
subpoena writ(written command issued by a court) summoning a witness to appear in court; V: summon with a subpoena
subsequent following in time or order; later
subservient behaving like a slave; servile; obsequious; subordinate; N. subservience
subside sink to a lower level; settle down; sink to the bottom (as a sediment); descend; grow quiet; become less; moderate; abate
subsidiary serving to assist; subordinate; secondary; of a subsidy; N.
subsidy direct financial aid by government, etc.; V. subsidize: assist with a subsidy
subsistence existence; means of subsisting; means of support; livelihood; V. subsist: exist; maintain life (at a meager level)
substantial of substance; material; solid; essential or fundamental; ample; considerable; well-to-do; wealthy
substantiate support (a claim) with evidence; establish with evidence; verify
substantive substantial; essential; pertaining to the substance; substantial; considerable; Ex. substantive issues
subsume include (as a member of a group); encompass
subterfuge stratagem(deceptive scheme); pretense; evasion; Ex. resort to a harmless subterfuge
subtlety perceptiveness; ingenuity; delicacy; ADJ. subtle: delicate; so slight as to be difficult to detect; able to make fine distinctions; clever; Ex. subtle mind/differences in meaning
subversive tending to overthrow or ruin; V. subvert: overthrow completely (an established system); destroy completely; CF. undermine ?
succor assist (someone in difficulty); aid; comfort; N.
succulent juicy; full of juice or sap; full of richness; N: succulent plant such as a cactus
succumb yield (to something overwhelming); give in; die; Ex. succumb to the illness
suckle give or take milk at the breast or udder
suffocate die or kill from lack of air; suppress
suffragist advocate of the extension of voting rights (for women); CF. suffrage
suffuse spread through or over (with a color or liquid); charge; Ex. A blush suffused her cheeks.
suitor man who is courting a woman
sullen silently showing ill humor or resentment; dark; gloomy
sully defile; soil; tarnish; Ex. sully one's hands in menial labor
sultry (of weather) hot; sweltering; sensual; voluptuous
summation act of finding the total; summing-up; summary (esp. one given by the judge at the end of a trial)
sumptuous grand suggesting great expense; lavish; rich; Ex. sumptuous feast
sunder separate; part; CF. asunder
sundry miscellaneous; various; several; N. sundries: small miscellaneous items
superannuated retired or disqualified because of age; outmoded; obsolete
supercilious haughty; arrogant; condescending; patronizing; CF. eyebrow, cilium
supererogatory superfluous; more than needed or demanded
superficial of the surface; not deep; shallow; not thorough; trivial; Ex. superficial analysis/knowledge
superfluous excessive; overabundant; unnecessary; N. superfluity
superimpose place over something else
supernumerary person or thing excess of what is necessary; extra; ADJ: additional to the usual or necessary number
supersede replace; cause to be set aside; make obsolete; N. supersession
supine lying on back; passive; inactive; Ex. The defeated pugilist lay supine; Ex. supine acceptance of the decision
supplant take the place of unfairly; usurp; replace
supple flexible; limber; pliant
suppliant entreating; beseeching; N.
supplicant one who supplicates; ADJ.
supplicate petition humbly; pray to grant a favor
supposition assumption; hypothesis; surmise; V. suppose
supposititious assumed; counterfeit; hypothetical
suppress put an end to forcibly; subdue; stifle; overwhelm; inhibit the expression of; check; prevent from being published or made public; Ex. suppress a smile; Ex. suppress the magazine/truth
surfeit satiate; feed or supply to excess; stuff; indulge to excess in anything; N: surfeiting; excessive amount; Ex. surfeit of food
surge powerful movement of or like a wave; V.
surly bad-tempered; rude; cross
surmise guess; N.
surmount overcome
surpass exceed
surreptitious done secretly; secret; furtive; sneaky; hidden
surrogate substitute; person or thing used in place of another; Ex. surrogate mother; ADJ.
surveillance close observation of a person (esp. one under suspicion); watching; guarding
susceptible impressionable; easily influenced; sensitive; having little resistance as to a disease; likely to suffer; receptive to; capable of accepting; Ex. susceptible to persuasion/colds; Ex. The agreement is not susceptible of alteration; N. susceptibility
suspend cause to stop for a period; interrupt; hold in abeyance; defer; hang from above; exclude for a period from a position; Ex. suspended state; Ex. suspend judgment; Ex. suspended from the team; N. suspension
suspense state of being undecided; anxiety or apprehension resulting from uncertainty
sustain suffer (harm or loss); experience; support; prop; maintain; keep in existence; nourish (to maintain life); Ex. sustain the family/the trapped miners
sustenance sustaining; means of livelihood, support, food, nourishment; something that maintains life; food
suture stitches sewn to hold the cut edges of a wound or incision; material used in sewing; V: sew together a wound
swagger walk or behave with an over-confident manner
swamp wetland; marsh; V: flood; overwhelm; drench in with liquid
swarm large group of insects moving in a mass; crowd of people or animals; V: move in a crowd or mass
swarthy (of a skin or complexion) dark; dusky; Ex. swarthy Italian ?
swathe swath; wrap around; bandage; Ex. one's head swathed in bandages
sway swing from side to side; influence (someone) to change one's opinion; N.
swear vow; promise; use profane oaths; use offensive words
swear-word word considered offensive; Ex. ``bloody''
swell long wave of water that moves continuously without breaking; V.
swelter (of a person) suffer from oppressive heat; be oppressed by heat
swerve deviate; turn aside sharply from a straight course; Ex. swerve from the principle; Ex. The car swerved to the right.
swill drink greedily
swindler cheater
swipe hit with a sweeping motion; N.
sybarite lover of luxury; person devoted to pleasure and luxury; CF. Sybaris: an ancient Greek city in Italy
sycophant servile flatterer; bootlicker; yes man; ADJ. sycophantic
syllogism logical formula consisting of a major premise, a minor premise and a conclusion; deceptive or specious argument
sylvan pertaining to the woods or the country
symbiosis interdependent relationship (between groups, species) often mutually beneficial; ADJ. symbiotic; CF. together + life
symmetry arrangement of parts so that balance is obtained; congruity; ADJ. symmetrical
synchronous similarly timed; simultaneous with; occurring at the same time; V. synchronize
synoptic providing a general overview; summary; N. synopsis
synthesis combining parts or separate things into a whole; the whole so formed; PL. syntheses; V. synthesize
synthetic not natural; artificial; resulting from synthesis; Ex. synthetic fiber; N.
tablet small round piece of medicine; flat piece of stone or metal bearing an inscription; Ex. stone tablet on the wall
tacit understood (without actually being expressed); not put into words; Ex. tacit agreement
taciturn habitually silent; talking little
tact skill or sensitivity in dealing with people without causing offence
tactful careful no to cause offence; OP. tactless
tactile pertaining to the organs or sense of touch
taint contaminate; cause to lose purity; modify with a trace of something bad; Ex. tainted reputation; N: stain; touch of decay or bad influence; CF. touch
takeoff burlesque; act of leaving the ground
talisman charm; object believed to give supernatural powers to or protect its bearer
talon claw of bird
tan convert (hide) into leather; make brown by exposure to the sun
tangential only slightly connected; not central; peripheral; digressing; showing divergence; CF. tangent
tangible able to be touched; real; concrete; palpable; possible to realize or understand; Ex. tangible proof
tanner person who turns animal hides into leather
tantalize tease; excite by exposing something desirable while keeping it out of reach; torture with disappointment; CF. Tantalus: Greek mythological figure
tantamount equivalent in effect or value; Ex. This invasion is tantamount to a declaration of war; CF. amount
tantrum fit of bad temper; fit of petulance; caprice; Ex. The child went into tantrums.
taper very thin candle; gradual decrease in the width of a long object; V. make or become gradually narrower toward one end
tarantula venomous spider
tardy slow; sluggish; not on time; late; Ex. tardy arrival
tarnish make or become dull or discolored; N.
tarry linger; delay in starting or going; dawdle
tart sharp to the taste; acid-tasting; caustic; sarcastic; Ex. tart apple/reply
tatter torn piece of cloth; ADJ. tattered: (of clothes) old and torn; (of a person) dressed in old torn clothes
taunt deride or provoke; challenge in derision; N.
taut tight; strained; tense; ready; OP. slack
tautological needlessly repetitious; Ex. ``It was visible to the eye''; N. tautology: needless repetition of the same sense; statement that is always true
tawdry cheap and gaudy; Ex. tawdry jewelry
tawny brownish yellow
taxonomist specialist in classifying (animals, etc.); CF. taxonomy: science of classification
tedium boredom; weariness; ADJ. tedious
teetotalism practice of abstaining totally from alcoholic drinks; N. teetotaler;; ADJ. teetotal; CF. T + total
temerity boldness; nerve; rashness; Ex. temerity to ask for a pay increase after only three day's work
temper moderate; make less severe; tone down or restrain; toughen (steel) as by alternate heating and cooling
temperament characteristic frame of mind; disposition; emotional excess; ADJ. temperamental: of temperament; having frequent changes of temper; Ex. temperamental dislike of sports; Ex. temperamental actress
temperate moderate; restrained; self-controlled; moderate in respect to temperature; CF. temperance: moderation and self-restraint; abstinence of alcoholic drinks; Ex. temperance society
tempestuous stormy; violent; impassioned; N. tempest: violent storm
tempo speed of music
temporal of time; not lasting forever; limited by time; temporary; secular; worldly
temporize gain time as by postponing an action; avoid committing oneself
tenacious holding fast (as to a belief); persistent
tenacity firmness; persistence
tenancy possession of land or building by rent; period of a tenant's occupancy
tenant one that pays rent to use property owned by another
tend have a tendency; take care of; minister; serve at; apply one's attention; attend
tendentious promoting a particular point of view; biased; having an aim; designed to further a cause; Ex. tendentious rather than truth-seeking; CF. tend: move in a certain direction
tender offer formally; extend; Ex. tender one's resignation/the exact fare; N: formal offer; money; Ex. legal tender; ADJ: young and vulnerable; sensitive to the touch; sore; soft; delicate; Ex. child of tender years; Ex. tender wound
tenet doctrine; dogma
tensile capable of being stretched; of tension; Ex. tensile rubber
tension stretching; condition of being stretched; mental strain; strained relationship between groups or people
tentative not fully worked out or developed; provisional; experimental; uncertain; hesitant; not definite or positive; Ex. tentative agreement/reply
tenuous thin; slim; rare
tenure holding of an office or real estate; time during which such an office is held
tepid lukewarm; slightly warm; half-hearted; not eager; Ex. tepid reaction to the new film; Ex. tepid supporter
terminal part that forms the end; railroad or bus station; ADJ. forming an end; ending in death; fatal; Ex. terminal cancer
termination end; V. terminate
terminology terms used in a science or art; study of nomenclature
terminus last stop of railroad; end
terrestrial on or relating to the earth
terse concise; abrupt; pithy
tertiary third in order or rank
tessellated mosaic; inlaid; Ex. tessellated pattern
testator maker of a will; CF. testatrix
testy irritable; impatient and bad-tempered; short-tempered; N. testiness
tether tie (an animal) with a rope or tether; N: rope or chain to which an animal is tied; limit of one's endurance; Ex. the end of one's tether
thematic of a theme; relating to a unifying motif or idea
theocracy government run by religious leaders
theoretical based on theory; not practical or applied; hypothetical
therapeutic curative; N. therapy
thermal pertaining to heat; producing heat; warm; Ex. thermal bath; N: rising current of warm air
thesis opinion put forward and supported by reasoned arguments
thespian pertaining to drama; N: actor or actress
thrall slave; bondage; slavery; Ex. Her beauty held him in thrall; CF. enthrall
thrash beat with a whip or flail; defeat utterly; talk about thoroughly in order to find the answer; move wildly or violently; Ex. The fishes thrashed about in the net.
threadbare worn through till the threads show; shabby and poor; hackneyed; Ex. threadbare excuses
threat sign or warning (of coming danger); Ex. threat of rain; V: express a threat; give warning of (something bad); Ex. The cloud threatens rain.
thresh beat (cereal plants) with a machine or flail to separate the grains from the straw
thrifty careful about money; economical; N. thrift
thrive prosper; flourish
throb (of a heart or machine) beat rapidly or violently; N. Ex. hearthrob: heartbeat; sweetheart
throes violent anguish
throng crowd (of people or things); V.
throttle strangle; regulate the speed of with a throttle; N: valve that regulates the flow; CF. throat ?
thwart block or hinder; baffle; frustrate
tickle touch (the body) lightly so as to cause laughter; please
tightwad miser; excessively frugal person
tiller handle used to move boat's rudder (to steer)
timbre quality of a musical tone produced by a musical instrument (which distinguishes it from others of the same pitch)
timidity lack of self-confidence or courage
timorous fearful; timid; demonstrating fear
tinge give a slight degree of a color or quality to; N: slight degree of a color or quality; Ex. tinged with grey/jealousy
tint slight degree of color; V: give a tint to
tipple drink (alcoholic beverages) frequently; N: alcoholic drink
tirade long angry denunciatory speech; diatribe; harangue; extended scolding; denunciation
titanic gigantic; N. titan
tithe tax of one-tenth (contributed to a church); V: pay a tithe
titillate tickle; excite pleasantly; Ex. not to titillate the audience but to enlighten it
title name (of a book, film, etc.); mark of rank; formal appellation as of rank or office (such as Lord or General); right or claim to possession; championship; Ex. title as head of the family; Ex. title to the estate
titter nervous giggle; nervous laugh; V.
titular of a title; in name only; nominal; having the title of an office without the obligations; Ex. titular head of the company
toady servile flatterer; yes man; sycophant; V: be a toady to; fawn
toga Roman outer robe
token outward sign; Ex. a token of our gratitude
toll sound (a large bell) slowly at regular intervals; N: sound of a bell; fixed tax or charge
tome large volume; book
tonsure shaving of the head especially by person entering religious orders; V.
topography physical features of a region (such as the shape and height); CF. topo-: place
topple become unsteady and fall down
torpedo underwater explosive apparatus; V.
torpor lethargy; sluggishness; dormancy; ADJ. torpid: lethargic; lazy; inactive; (of an animal) dormant; hibernating
torque twisting force; force producing rotation
torrent rushing stream; flood; Ex. The rain fell in torrents.
torrid (of weather) hot or scorching; passionate; Ex. torrid love affairs
torso trunk of statue with head and limbs missing; human trunk
tortuous winding; full of curves; Ex. tortuous mountain road
toss throw lightly; move or lift (the head) with a sudden motion; flip (a coin) to decide something
totem animal, plant, or natural object serving as a symbol of a clan or family; representation of this; Ex. totem pole
totter shake or move unsteadily; sway as if about to fall
touching causing a feeling of pity or sympathy; pathetic; V. touch: cause to feel pity or sympathy; ADJ. touched
touchstone stone used to test the fineness of gold alloys; criterion; standard
touchy oversensitive; easily offended; irasible; delicate; needing delicate handling; Ex. touchy situation
tout promote or publicize (one's goods or service); praise excessively (as a form of advertisement); CF. advertise
toxic poisonous; N. toxicity
tract propaganda pamphlet (esp. by a religious or political group); expanse of land; region of indefinite size; system of related organs; Ex. digestive tract
tractable docile; easily managed; (of something) easily changed or molded; N. tractability
traduce expose to slander
trajectory path taken by a projectile; Ex. trajectory of a bullet
tramp walk with a heavy step; travel on foot; N: vagrant; one who travels aimlessly about; long walk; sound of heavy walking
trample step heavily with the feet; crush under the feet
trance hypnotic state; ecstatic state; detachment from one's physical surrounding (as in contemplation or daydreaming); CF. transition
tranquillity calmness; peace
transcendent exceeding ordinary limits; superior; surpassing; V. transcend: go beyond; exceed; surpass; N. transcendancy
transcendental going beyond common thought or ideas; impossible to understand by practical experiences or practices; known only by studying thoughts or intuition; OP. empirical; CF. transcendentalism
transcribe copy; write a copy of; N. transcription
transgression violation of a law; sin; V. transgress: go beyond (a limit); violate; do wrong
transient staying for a short time; momentary; temporary; N: one that is transient
transition going from one state of action to another
transitory transient; impermanent; fleeting; N. transitoriness
translucent partly transparent
transmute transform; change; convert to something different
transparent permitting light to pass through freely; easily detected; obvious; clear; Ex. transparent lie
transpire (of a fact) become known; be revealed; happen; give off (watery waste matter) through pores
transport strong emotion; rapture; Ex. in a transport/transports of; V: move to strong emotion; enrapture
transpose reverse the order or position of
trappings outward decorations; ornaments (as an outward sign of rank)
traumatic (of an experience) deeply shocking; pertaining to an injury caused by violence; N. trauma: serious wound; emotional shock that causes lasting psychological damage
travail strenuous work; toil; painful labor; labor of childbirth
traverse go through or across
travesty copy or example of something that completely misrepresents the true nature of the real thing; comical parody or imitation; treatment aimed at making something appear ridiculous; Ex. travesty of justice; OP. paragon
tread walk; trample; N: grooved face of a tire; horizontal part of a step
treasure keep as precious; cherish
treatise article treating a subject systematically and thoroughly
trek travel; journey; V: make a long difficult journey
tremor trembling; slight quiver (as of the earth or from nervous agitation)
tremulous trembling; wavering
trenchant cutting; incisive; keen
trepidation fear; nervous apprehension
tribulation suffering; ordeal; distress; trial
tribunal court of justice
tribune official of ancient Rome elected by the plebians to protect their rights; protector of the people
tribute tax levied by a ruler; payment made by one nation to another in acknowledgment of submission; mark of respect (such as praise or gift); Ex. pay tribute to
trickle flow in drops or in a thin stream; N.
trickster person who cheats people
trident three-pronged spear
trifle something of little importance or value; small amount; Ex. a trifle; V: treat without seriousness; flirt
trifling trivial; unimportant
trigger set off; start
trilogy group of three related works (connected by a shared subject but each complete in itself)
trim make neat or tidy by clipping; reduce by removing what is unnecessary; ornament; decorate (round the edges); Ex. trim the cost; Ex. jacket trimmed with fur; N. ADJ: tidy; in good order
trinket knickknack; bauble; cheap jewelry
trite hackneyed; commonplace
trivia trifles; unimportant matters
troth pledge of good faith especially in betrothal; betrothal; Ex. by my troth
trough long narrow container for feeding farm animals; lowest point (of a wave, business cycle, etc.); long narrow depression as between waves
truculence aggressiveness; ferocity; ADJ. truculent: aggressive; pugnacious; fierce
truism self-evident truth
truncate cut the top off; shorten
trunk main wooden stem of a tree; human body excluding the head and limbs; torso; prehensile nose of an elephant
tryst meeting arranged by lovers; arrangement between lovers to meet
tumid (of a part of the body) swollen; distended; bombastic; pompous
tumult commotion of a great crowd; riot; noise; uproar; ADJ. tumultuous: noisy and disorderly
tundra rolling treeless plain in Siberia and arctic North America
turbid (of a liquid) having the sediment disturbed; muddy; thick
turbulence state of violent agitation; ADJ. turbulent: violently agitated or disturbed
tureen deep dish for serving soup
turgid swollen; distended (as from liquid)
turmoil extreme confusion; great commotion and confusion; Ex. throw the country into turmoil
turncoat traitor
turpitude depravity; baseness; Ex. moral turpitude
tutelage guardianship; training; function of a tutor; instruction
tutelary protective; pertaining to a guardianship; Ex. tutelary deities
tycoon wealthy and powerful businessperson; wealthy leader; magnate; Ex. business tycoon
typhoon tropical hurricane or cyclone
tyranny oppression; cruel government; ADJ. tyrannical: of a tyrant or tyranny; despotic; V. tyrannize: treat tyrannically; oppress
tyro beginner; novice
ubiquitous being everywhere; omnipresent; N. ubiquity
ulcer sore place appearing on the skin inside or outside the body; Ex. stomach ulcer; ADJ. ulcerous; V. ulcerate
ulterior intentionally hidden; beyond what is evident; situated beyond; unstated and often questionable; Ex. ulterior motive
ultimate final; not susceptible to further analysis; fundamental; Ex. The sun is the ultimate source of energy.
ultimatum last demand; last warning; last statement of conditions that must be met; Ex. They have ignored our ultimatum.
umbrage resentment; anger; sense of injury or insult; Ex. take umbrage at his rudeness
unaccountable unexplicable; impossible to account for; unreasonable or mysterious
unanimity complete agreement; ADJ. unanimous
unassailable not open to attack; impregnable; not subject to question
unassuaged unsatisfied; not soothed
unassuming modest; Ex. the champion's unassuming manner
unbridled violent; uncontrolled; Ex. unbridled rage/greed
uncanny strange; mysterious; Ex. uncanny knack
unceremonious not done politely without due formalities
unconscionable unscrupulous; not guided by conscience; excessive; beyond reason; Ex. unconscionable demand
uncouth boorish; clumsy in speech or behavior; outlandish
unction the act of anointing with oil; Ex. extreme unction
unctuous oily; bland; insincerely suave
underhand(underhanded) done slyly and secretly (being dishonest)
underlying lying below; fundamental
undermine weaken gradually; sap; dig a mine beneath
underscore underline; emphasize
understate state with less truth than seems warranted by the facts; Ex. He understated the seriousness of the crime; N. understatement; OP. overstate
undertaker funeral director; one whose business is to arrange burials
undulating moving with a wavelike motion; V. undulate; CF. und: wave
unearth dig up; discover (facts) by careful searching; Ex. He unearthed some secrets about her; OP. conceal
unearthly not earthly; supernatural; weird; ghostly
unequivocal plain; clear; obvious
unerringly infallibly; ADJ. unerring: making no mistakes
unexceptionable entirely acceptable; not offering any basis for criticism
unfaltering steadfast; firm; not changing
unfeigned genuine; real
unfetter liberate; free from chains; V. unfetter
unfledged immature; not having the feathers necessary to fly; CF. fledgling
unfrock defrock; strip a priest or minister of church authority
ungainly (of someone) awkward in movement; clumsy; (of something) unwieldy; Ex. ungainly dancer/instrument
unguent ointment
uniformity sameness; monotony; ADJ. uniform: the same all over
unilateral one-sided; involving or affecting only one side; Ex. unilateral declaration
unimpeachable that cannot be impeached; beyond doubt or question; blameless and exemplary
uninhibited unrepressed; free in behavior and feelings
unintimating unfrightening
unique without an equal; single in kind
unison unity of pitch (in musical performance); complete accord; Ex. The choir sang in unison.
universal characterizing or affecting all; general; present everywhere; of the universe; cosmic; Ex. universal agreement; Ex. a subject of universal interest
unkempt disheveled; uncared for in appearance; not combed; CF. comb
unmitigated (of something bad) not moderated; unrelieved or immoderate; without qualification; absolute; Ex. unmitigated disaster
unobtrusive inconspicuous; not blatant
unprecedented having no previous example; novel; unparalleled
unprepossessing unattractive
unravel disentangle; solve
unregenerate making no attempt to change one's bad practices
unrequited not requited; not reciprocated; Ex. unrequited love
unruly disobedient; lawless; difficult to control
unsavory distasteful; disagreeable; morally offensive; Ex. unsavory activity/reputation
unscathed unharmed; Ex. escape the accident unscathed
unseemly unbecoming; not proper in behavior; indecent; Ex. leave with unseemly haste
unsightly ugly; unpleasant to look at
unsullied untarnished; CF. sully
untenable (of a position, esp. in an argument) indefensible; not able to be maintained
untoward unexpected and adverse; unfortunate or unlucky; Ex. untoward encounter
unwarranted unjustified; having no justification; groundless; baseless; undeserved
unwieldy awkward (to carry or move); cumbersome; unmanageable
unwitting not knowing; unaware; unintentional; Ex. She was their unwitting accomplice; Ex. unwitting insult; CF. wit: know
unwonted unaccustomed; unusual; Ex. He arrived with unwonted punctuality.
upbraid reprimand; severely scold
upright (sitting or standing) straight up; honest; moral
uproar noisy confusion
uproarious marked by commotion or uproar; very noisy (esp. with laughter); hilarious; causing loud laughter; extremely funny
upshot outcome; final result
urbane suave; refined in manner; elegant
urchin mischievous child (usually a boy); CF. urchin: hedgehog; CF. porcupine: pig with spikes ?; CF. sea urchin
urge drive or force forward (by causing impulses); drive to take action; impel; entreat earnestly; Ex. urge horses; N: impulse that prompts action
urgent compelling immediate action; pressing; persistent; importunate; Ex. urgent in his demands
ursine bearlike; pertaining to a bear
usage act or manner of using; accepted practice; way in which words are actually used
usurp seize another's power or rank (without legal authority); supplant; appropriate; N. usurpation; CF. take for one's own use
usury lending money at illegal high rates of interest
utopia ideal place, state, or society; ADJ. utopian
uxorious excessively submissive or devoted to one's wife; CF. uxor: wife
vacillate waver (in opinion); fluctuate; sway to and fro; N. vacillation
vacuous empty; lacking in ideas; inane; stupid; Ex. vacuous expression; N. vacuity
vagabond wanderer (without a permanent home); tramp
vagary capricious happening; caprice; whim; CF. wander
vagrant homeless wanderer
vain full of self-admiration; conceited; without result; unsuccessful; N. vanity
vainglorious boastful; excessively conceited; N. vainglory: great vanity
valediction saying farewell; expression of leave-taking
valedictory pertaining to farewell; N: farewell address (esp. at graduation exercises)
valid logically convincing; sound; legally acceptable; effective; Ex. valid reasoning/passport
validate make valid; confirm; ratify
valor bravery; ADJ. valiant: possessing valor; brave
vampire ghostly being that sucks the blood of the living
vanguard forerunners; foremost position of an army; advance forces; foremost position in a trend or movement; CF. rearguard
vantage position giving an advantage (such as a strategic point); CF. vantagepoint
vapid lacking liveliness; dull and unimaginative; insipid and flavorless; Ex. vapid lecture
vaporize turn into vapor (steam, gas, fog, etc.)
variegate change the appearance of (by marking with different colors)
variegated (esp. of a flower or leaf) many-colored
varnish paint used to coat a surface with a glossy film; glossy coating produced by using this substance; Ex. nail varnish; V.
vassal in feudalism, one who held land of a superior lord; subordinate or dependent
vaunted boasted; bragged; highly publicized; V. vaunt: boast; brag
veer change in direction; swerve
vegetate live in a monotonous way (without interests or activity); CF. vegetation: plants of an area; CF. vegetarian; CF. vegan
vehement forceful; intensely emotional; with marked vigor; strong; N. vehemence
velocity speed
venal capable of being bribed; corrupt; CF. vernal
vendetta blood feud (esp. between two families); CF. Nina Williams
vendor seller
veneer thin surface layer (of good quality wood, glued to a base of inferior material); cover; surface show; fa\c{c}ade; V.
venerable deserving high respect; commanding respect; CF. command: deserve and get
venerate revere; treat with great respect
venial (of a fault or sin) forgivable; trivial
venison meat of a deer; CF. cow: beef; CF. pig: pork, ham, bacon; CF. calf: veal; CF. sheep: mutton; CF. lamb: lamb
venom poison (of an animal); hatred; Ex. remarks full of venom; ADJ. venomous
vent release or discharge through a vent; express (esp. unfairly); utter; Ex. He vented his wrath on his family.
ventilate admit fresh air into to replace stale air
ventral abdominal
ventriloquist someone who can make his or her voice seem to come from another person or thing (without moving lips or jaws); N. ventriloquism, ventriloquy
venture risk; expose to risk; dare; undertake a risk; N.
venturesome (of a person) bold; adventurous; daring; (of an action) risky
venue location; place (of a crime, trial, gathering, etc.); CF. come
veracious (of a person) truthful
veracity truthfulness; adherence to the truth
verbalize put into words; ADJ. verbal: of words; spoken rather than written; oral; of a verb
verbatim word for word; in the same words; repeating the actual words exactly
verbiage pompous array of words; too many unnecessary words; wordiness
verbose wordy; N. verbosity
verdant green; covered with green plants or grass; lush in vegetation; Ex. verdant meadows
verdigris green coating or patina on copper which has been exposed to the weather
verge border; edge, rim, or margin; Ex. on the verge of: very near to; V: border on
verisimilar having the appearance of truth or reality; probable or likely to be true; plausible
verisimilitude appearance of truth; quality of appearing to be true or real; likelihood; Ex. verisimilitude of her performance as Lady Macbeth
veritable being truly so; real or genuine; actual; not false or imaginary
verity quality of being true; lasting truth or principle; Ex. the verity of his testimony; Ex. one of the eternal verities
vernacular living language (as compared to the official language); language spoken in a country or region; natural style; Ex. lapse into the vernacular
vernal pertaining to spring
versatile having many talents; capable of working in many fields; having many uses or functions; N. versatility
vertebrate having a backbone or spinal column; N: group of animals having a segmented spinal column
vertex summit; highest point; PL. vertices
vertigo severe dizziness; giddiness
verve enthusiasm (as in artistic performance or composition); liveliness; vigor
vestige trace; remains; Ex. vestiges of some ancient religion
veto vested power to reject a bill; exercise of this right; V: prevent or forbid by exercising the power of veto
vex annoy; distress
viable capable of maintaining life; feasible; practical or workable; Ex. viable scheme
viand food; CF. live
vibrant full of vigor or energy; vibrating
vicar parish priest; representative
vicarious experienced as if one were taking part in the experience of another; done by a deputy for other people; acting as a substitute; Ex. vicarious thrill at the movies; Ex. the vicarious sufferings of Christ
vicissitude change (esp. from good to bad); change of fortune; CF. the last emperor of China
victuals food; provisions; V. victual: provide with food
vie contend; compete
vigil keeping watch (during normal sleeping hours); Ex. all-night vigil
vigilant watchful; on the alert; watchfully awake; alert to spot danger; N. vigilance
vigilante one who without authority assumes law enforcement powers
vignette small drawing placed at the beginning or end of a chapter; picture; short literary sketch; short written description of a character or scene
vigor active strength; energy; enthusiasm; ADJ. vigorous
vile despicable; unpleasant; disgusting; Ex. vile slander
vilify slander; speak evil of; N. vilification
vindicate clear from blame; free from blame or accusation (with supporting proof); exonerate; substantiate; justify or support; avenge; Ex. vindicate one's client; Ex. vindicate one's claim; CF. vindicator
vindictive disposed to revenge; vengeful; out for revenge; spiteful; intended to cause harm; malicious; Ex. vindictive streak
vintner wine merchant; winemaker; seller of wine
violate break (a law); defile; desecrate; assault sexually; Ex. violate graves
viper poisonous snake
virile manly; having masculine spirit or strength; full of strength
virtual in essence; existing in essence though not in actual form; for practical purposes; Ex. virtual ruler/space
virtue goodness; moral excellence; good quality; advantage; Ex. by virtue of; Ex. make a virtue of necessity
virtuoso highly skilled artist (esp. in music); Ex. piano virtuoso
virulent (of a disease or poison) extremely harmful or poisonous; (of a feeling) hostile; bitter; N. virulence; CF. virus; CF. venom
virus disease communicator
visage face; appearance
visceral felt in one's inner organs; N. viscera: internal body organs; CF. eviscerate
viscid adhesive; gluey
viscous (of a liquid) thick and sticky; gluey; viscid; CF. consistency
vise vice; tool for holding work in place; clamping device
vision eyesight; foresight; mental image produced by the imagination; experience of seeing the supernatural
visionary produced by imagination; fanciful; mystical; showing foresight; N: one having foresight; one given to speculative impractical ideas
vital full of life; animated; vibrant and lively; critical; of great importance; necessary to stay alive; of life; living; breathing; N. vitality; V. vitalize
vitiate spoil the effect of; make inoperative; corrupt morally
vitreous of glass; pertaining to or resembling glass; V. vitrify: change into glass; CF. petrify
vitriolic causing sharp pain to the mind; caustic; corrosive; sarcastic; of vitriol; N. vitriol: sulphuric acid (which burns flesh deeply); bitterly abusive expression; caustic expression; CF. glass
vituperative abusive; scolding; V. vituperate: berate; scold; rail against abusively
vivacious lively or animated; sprightl sprightly/lively
vivid (of light or color) bright and distinct; evoking lifelike mental images; Ex. vivid red hair/description
vivisection act of dissecting living animals
vixen female fox; ill-tempered woman; CF. shrew
vociferous clamorous; noisy; V. vociferate: cry out loudly (when complaining)
vogue popular fashion; Ex. Jeans became the vogue.
volatile changeable; of a quickly changing nature (as of temper); mercurial; tending to violence; evaporating rapidly; Ex. volatile character/situation in the street
volition act of using one's will; act of making a conscious choice; Ex. She selected this dress of her own volition.
volley simultaneous discharge of a number of shots; V.
voluble fluent; talkative; glib; N. volubility
voluminous having great volume (as of a garment or container); bulky; large
voluptuous sensual; of or giving sensual pleasure; indulging in sensual pleasures; Ex. voluptuous lines; Ex. voluptuous life of the Romans; N. voluptuary: voluptuous person
voodoo religion practiced chiefly in Haiti
voracious ravenous; eating large quantities of food; exceedingly eager; insatiable; Ex. voracious animal/reader
vortex whirlwind; whirlpool; center of turbulence; predicament into which one is inexorably plunged
vouch give a personal guarantee; Ex. I can vouch for his integrity; N. voucher
vouchsafe grant condescendingly; guarantee; Ex. vouchsafe your fair return on your investment
voyeur Peeping Tom; person who derives sexual gratification from observing the sexual acts of others
vulgar of the common people; deficient in refinement; not refined; coarse; Ex. vulgar display of wealth; N. vulgarism: vulgarity; crudely indecent word; CF. vulgarian: vulgar person; boor; lout
vulnerable susceptible to wounds or attack; N. vulnerability
vulpine like a fox; crafty
vulture carrion-eating birds
vying contending; CF. vie
wade walk through a substance, such as water, that impedes movement
waffle speak equivocally about an issue; N.
waft move gently (in air or in seas) by wind or waves; Ex. leaves wafting past the window
wag shake repeatedly from side to side; Ex. The dog wagged its tail; N: humorous person; wit
wage begin and continue (a war)
waggish humorous; mischievous; tricky
waif homeless child or animal; Ex. waifs and strays
waive give up temporarily; yield; N. waiver: waiving a right or claim; document that waives a right or claim
wake trail of ship or other object through water; path of something that has gone before; Ex. hunger followed in the wake of the war
wallow roll in mud; indulge in; (of a ship) roll in a rough sea; become helpless; Ex. wallow in the mud/luxury
wan having a pale or sickly color; pallid
wanderlust strong longing to travel
wane decrease in size or strength (after being full); grow gradually to an end; Ex. The moon waxes and wanes every month; N.
wangle achieve by cleverness or trick; wiggle out; fake; Ex. She tried to wangle an invitation to the party.
wanton unrestrained; gratuitously cruel; willfully malicious; unchaste; sexually improper; promiscuous; Ex. wanton spending/killing; CF. having no just cause
warble (of a bird) sing; babble; N.
ward administrative division of a city; division in a hospital or prison; incompetent person placed under the protection of a guardian; V: guard; ward off: avert
warp twist out of shape; N.
warrant justification; written order that serves as authorization (esp. a judicial writ); Ex. search/death warrant; V: justify; guarantee
warranted justified; authorized
warranty guarantee; assurance by seller
warren tunnels in which rabbits live; overcrowded living area; crowded conditions in which people live
wary very cautious; watchful
wastrel waster; profligate
waver move or swing back and forth; be uncertain or unsteady in decision or movement; Ex. wavering between accepting and refusing
wax increase gradually (as the moon); grow
waylay ambush; lie in wait for and attack
wean accustom a baby not to nurse; accustom (the young of a mammal) to take nourishment other than by suckling; give up a cherished activity; cause to gradually leave (an interest or habit); Ex. wean oneself from cigarettes
weary tired after long work; V.
weather pass safely through (a storm or difficult period); endure the effects of weather or other forces
weird eerie; strange; unnatural
well-bred of good upbringing; well-mannered and refined
welt raised mark from a beating or whipping
welter wallow (as in mud or high seas); lie soaked (as in blood); Ex. The victims weltered in their blood.
wheedle deceive, persuade, or obtain by flattery; cajole; coax; Ex. wheedle a promise out of her
whelp young animal (esp. of the dog or cat family); young wolf, dog, tiger, etc.
whet sharpen; stimulate; Ex. whet someone's appetite
whiff puff or gust (of air, scent, etc.); short-lasting smell; hint; Ex. whiff of perfume/scandal
whim sudden capricious idea; fancy
whimsical capricious; fanciful; amusingly strange
whimsy whim; tendency to behave amusingly strangely; Ex. story full of whimsy
whine complain (in a sad voice); make a high sad sound (as in pain or supplication)
whinny neigh like a horse; CF. neigh: make the sound which horses make
whit small amount; smallest speck; Ex. not a whit of
whittle pare; cut away thin bits (from wood); fashion in this way; reduce gradually; trim
wholesome conducive to mental or physical health; healthful
whorl ring of leaves around stem; ring; circular arrangement; Ex. whorls on the fingers
wiggle wriggle; move from side to side with irregular twisting motions
willful wilful; intentional; headstrong
willowy flexible; pliant; slender; CF. willow
wilt loose freshness; droop
wily crafty; cunning; artful; N. wile: deceitful stratagem
wince move back suddenly; shrink back; flinch; Ex. She winced as she touched the cold body.
windfall fallen fruit; unexpected lucky event
winnow sift; separate the chaff from grain by blowing; separate good parts from bad; CF. wind
winsome charming (in a childlike way); agreeable; gracious; engaging
wisp small bunch (of hair); faint streak (of smoke)
wispy thin; slight; barely discernible
wistful sadly thoughtful (because of desires or memories); sadly pensive; vaguely longing
withdrawn introverted; retiring; remote remote/distant in manner; aloof
wither (of a plant) dry up from loss of moisture; lose freshness; shrivel; decay
withhold refuse to give; hold back; Ex. withholding tax
withstand stand up against; resist successfully
witless lacking intelligence or wit; foolish; idiotic
witticism witty saying; wisecrack(clever joking remark)
wizardry sorcery; magic
wizened shriveled; withered; Ex. wizened apple/old lady
woe great sorrow; deep inconsolable grief; affliction; suffering; Ex. financial woes
woeful sad; (of something bad) deplorable; deplorably bad; Ex. woeful housing conditions
wont (the stated person's) habit or custom; habitual procedure; ADJ. wonted: customary
worldly engrossed in matters of this earth; not spiritual; of the material world
wrangle quarrel noisily; obtain through arguing; herd cattle; N.
wrath anger; fury
wreak inflict; Ex. wreak one's vengeance on
wrench twist; pull; strain; Ex. He wrenched the gun out of her hands.
wrest obtain by pulling violently; pull away; take by violence; Ex. wrest victory from their grasp
wretch miserable person; bad or despicable person; ADJ. wretched: miserable; bad; contemptible; vile
wring twist (to extract liquid); extract by twisting; wrench painfully (necks or hands)
wrinkle small ridge on a smooth surface (face or cloth); V.
writ written command issued by a court (telling someone to do or not to do something)
writhe twist in coils; contort in pain
wrongheaded stubbornly wrong
wry (esp. of an expression of the face) twisted; with a humorous twist (expressing displeasure)
xenophobia fear or hatred of foreigners; N. xenophobe
yen strong desire; longing; urge; Ex. yen for travel
yeoman man or farmer owning small estate; middle-class farmer
yield amount produced; crop; income on investment; profit obtained from an investment; V: produce; give in; surrender
yoke join together; unite; N: crossbar used to joining two draft animals
yokel rustic; country bumpkin;
yore time long past; Ex. in the days of yore
zany comic; crazy; N: clown; comical person (given to outlandish behavior)
zeal eager enthusiasm (to a cause or ideal); ADJ. zealous
zealot one who is zealous; fanatic; person who shows excessive zeal
zenith point directly overhead in the sky; summit; acme; highest point
zephyr gentle breeze; west wind
zest outer skin of an orange used for giving a special taste to food; spice; interest; flavor; spirited enjoyment; Ex. add a certain zest to the affair; Ex. zest for life